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bio chapters 1 & 22
Terms in this set (17)
What is science?
Science means "to know"--an approach to understanding the natural world
What is Biology?
the scientific study of life
the characteristics of life
a. Presence of cells
b. Order-biological hierarchy
c. Response to physical environment
d. Energy processing
Describe how energy flows through an ecosystem. Where does the energy come from, how is it processed, and how in what form does it leave?
A. Every organism interacts with its environment
B. Energy is used to carry out daily activities
C. Living organisms transfer energy from one form to another
D. Energy flows through an ecosystem, usually entering as light and exiting as heat
E. producers convert sunlight to chemical energy
What characteristics do eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells have in common? How do they differ?
a. Eukaryotic cells have membrane-enclosed organelles (largest is nucleus)
b. Prokaryotic cells are simpler and smaller and does not have nucleus or membrane enclosed organelles) (single celled and microscopic)
What types of organisms are prokaryotic?
domain bacteria and domain archaea
What types are eukaryotic?
State and give an example of the three domains of life.
A. Organisms are divided into 3 domains : Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
B. Bacteria and archaea=prokaryotes
C. Domain eukarya=all eukaryatic organisms
Describe the role that DNA plays in the growth, development, and reproduction.
The ability of cells to divide is the foundation of all reproduction, growth, and repair of multicellular organisms
Compare positive and negative feedback.
a. Negative feedback is when a product continues to accumulate, the process that creates it slows, and less of the product is produced
b. Positive feedback is when more of a product accumulates, rather than slowing it, the process that creates it speeds it up and more of that product is produced
State and describe the steps of the scientific method
a. Making observations
b. Forming a question
c. Forming logical hypotheses (is it testable/falsifiable?)
e. Testing those hypotheses through experimentation
f. Creating variables
a. Independent- what we are manipulating or changing
b. Dependent- what we are measuring or what the outcome is
c. Controlled variable- what we are keeping constant throughout the entire experiment
g. Analysis of data
a. Qualitative and quantitative
What does it mean that a hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable?
The hypothesis must be able to be tested and be able to be proven wrong
Describe how reproductive success influences evolution. Describe how the environment can affect reproductive success.
a. Organisms are modified descendants of their ancestors and DNA is the universal language common to all organisms in which explains the heritable changes among organisms
Describe what Darwin meant by "decent with modification"
Darwin defined evolution as "descent with modification," the idea that species change over time, give rise to new species, and share a common ancestor.
Describe what Darwin meant by natural selection?
members of a population possessing beneficial genetic traits will survive and reproduce better than members that lack these traits
ex: giraffes and their long necks to eat leaves, or to fight giraffe with shorter necks and win the female
levels of biological organization
1. biosphere (all life on earth)
2. ecosystems (mountains)
3. communities (belong to a species)
remember: Because emily cant properly open oranges, the class openly mocks
new properties that arise w/ each step upward in the hierarchy of life---due to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases
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