AP Human Geography Chapter 9 - Agriculture

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START OF KEY ISSUE 1: Define agriculture
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The agricultural revolution was the time when human being first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering. It is believed to have occurred around the year 8000 B.C. because the world population began to grow at its most rapid rate. By growing plants and raising animals, human beings created larger and more stable sources of food, so more people could survive.
a. The first domestication of crops and animals coincided with climate change (end of last ice age; permanent ice cover receded to the poles, resulting in a massive redistribution of humans, animals, and plants)
b. A preference for living in a fixed place rather than as nomads may have led hunters and gatherers to build permanent settlements and to store surplus vegetation there. Over thousands of years, plant cultivation apparently evolved from a combination of accident and deliberate experiment.
a. Earliest crops domesticated 10,000 years ago: barley wheat, lentil, and olive. Hearth for domestication of largest number of agriculturally important animals, 8-9,000 years ago: cattle, goats, pigs, and sheep. Domestication of dog: 12,000 years ago. From Southwest Asia, cultivation diffused west to Europe and east to Central Asia.
b. Rice domesticated over 10,000 years ago, along Yangtze River in eastern China. Millet cultivated at early date along Yellow River.
c. Chickens diffused from South Asia 4,000 years ago. Horse domesticated in Central Asia; its diffusion associated with diffusion of Indo-European language.
d. Sorghum domesticated in central Africa 8,000 years ago, yams earlier. Millet and rice possibly domesticated in sub-Saharan Africa, independently of hearth in East Asia. From central Africa, domestication of crops probably diffused further south in Africa.
e. Two hearths; Mexico and Peru: 4-5,000 years ago. Mexico hearth for beans and cotton; Peru for potato. Most important contribution to crop domestication: corn; emerged in two hearths independently around same time. Cultivation of maze and other crops diffused northward into North America and southward into tropical South America. Origin of squash: southeastern U.S.
In developed countries, about 3% of workers are engaged directly in farming, compared to around 42% in developing countries. In developing countries, a large percentage of people are subsistence farmers, as they produce the food they and their families require. In developed countries, however, the relatively few people engaged in farming are commercial farmers, and most people buy food with money earned by working in factories or offices or by performing other services.
a. The first all-iron plow was made in the 1770s (previous machinery were made from wood) and was followed in the 19th and 20th centuries by inventions that made farming less dependent on human or animal power. Today, farmers use tractors, combines, planters, etc. to increase productivity.
b. Experiments conducted generate new fertilizers, herbicides, hybrid plants, animal breeds, and farming practices, which lead to higher crop yields and healthier animals.
c. Farmers use GPS systems to determine the precise coordinates for planting seeds and for spreading different types and amounts of fertilizers, as well as monitoring cattle and tractor location. Satellite imagery is used to measure crop progress and to determine the precise number of bushels being harvested.
People are pushed away from farms by lack of opportunity to earn a decent income, and at the same time are pulled to higher-paying jobs in urban areas; this contributed to the decline of farms from about 6 million in 1940 to 2 million in 1980. Furthermore, the U.S. is a developed country and its use of farm machinery has increased its agricultural efficiency.
START OF KEY ISSUE 2: Explain how each of the following impact the diet and nutrition of people around the world. a. Development b. Physical conditions c. Cultural preferencesa. People in developed countries tend to consume more food and from different sources than people in developing countries. b. Climate determines what is easily grown and therefore consumed in developing countries. In developed countries, food is shipped long distances to locations with different climates. c. Preferences and avoidances are expressed without regard for physical and economic factors.Define dietary energy consumptionThe amount of food that an individual consumes. Measured in kilocalories (kcal) or calories (U.S.)Make notes on the different cereal grains around the world. a. Wheat b. Rice c. Maize d. Othera. Principal cereal grain consumed in developed regions of Europe and North America. Most consumed grain in developing regions of Central and Southwest Asia (dry climate makes it best for growing wheat) b. East, South, and Southeast Asia. Most suitable for production in tropical climates. c. Leading crop in the world. Much of it is grown for animal feed, as well as human consumption. Leading crop in some countries of sub-Saharan Africa. d. Handful of countries, especially those in sub-Saharan Africa. Cassava, sorghum, millet, plantains, sweet potatoes, and yams. Sugar: leading source of dietary energy in Venezuela.How do dietary energy needs vary around the world?Needed: 1,844. Average eaten: 2,902. The U.S. (3,800, highest) and other developed countries (3,400) eat more than needed. Sub-Saharan Africa: 2,400. Developing regions: average daily consumption is 2,800.Define food securityPhysical, social, and economic access at all times to safe and nutritious food sufficient to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life (10% of world pop. does not have this)Why is protein significant?It is needed for growth and maintenance of the human body. In developed countries, meat is the leading source of protein. In developing countries, cereal grains provide the largest share of protein. Meat: 33% of protein in developed countries, 10% in developing countries.START OF KEY ISSUE 3: (Be generally familiar with the maps on pgs. 316 and 317) Make notes on where each of the following types of farming are practiced in developing countries: a. Intensive subsistence, wet-rice dominant b. Intensive subsistence, not rice c. Pastoral nomadism d. Shifting cultivation e. Plantationa. Large population concentrations of East Asia and South Asia b. Large population concentrations of East Asia and South Asia (where growing rice is difficult) c. The drylands of Southwest Asia and North Africa, Central Asia, and East Asia d. The tropical regions of Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia e. A farm of commercial agriculture found in tropical and subtropical developing countries of Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast AsiaTake notes on where each of the following are practiced in developed countries: a. Mixed crop and livestock b. Dairying c. Grain d. Ranching e. Mediterranean f. Commercial Gardeninga. The U.S. midwest and central Europe b. Near population clusters in northwestern U.S., southeastern Canada, and northwestern Canada c. The north-central U.S., south-central Canada, and Eastern Europe d. The drylands of western North America, southeastern Latin America, the western United States, southern tip of Africa, and Chile e. Lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, western U.S., southern tip of Africa, and Chile f. Southeastern U.S. and southeastern AustraliaSubsistence agriculture: Explain hunting and gathering "agriculture."Hunted animals and gathered plants and migrated when supplies in one area ran out.What are the three most common animals used in pastoral nomadism? Explain why for each.a. Camels: go long periods without water, move rapidly, and carry heavy loads. b. Goats: tough and agile, survive on any vegetation d. Sheep:How are pastoral nomads and state governments coming into conflict with one another?The government wants the land for other uses, such as mining and petroleum.What is another name for shifting cultivation?Slash-and-burn agriculture.Provide a few examples of crops grown through shifting cultivation.Rice: southeast Asia. Corn and manioc (cassava): South America. Millet and sorghum: Africa.Explain the relationship between the number of people who practice shifting cultivation and the amount of land it uses.Shifting cultivation requires more land per person than other types of agriculture.How is the future of shifting cultivation threatened?Land devoted to shifting cultivation is declining in the tropics, and being replaced by other development strategies.Briefly explain plantation farming.- Tropics and subtropics (Latin America, Africa, Asia) - Owned and operated by Europeans and North Americans - Grow crops to sell to developed countries (cotton, sugarcane, coffee) - Important in U.S. South until Civil War - Slaves did all of the work; after Civil War plantations subdivided and sold to individual farmers or worked by tenant farmersTake notes on some of the characteristics of intensive subsistence farming.- Lack of funds to buy equipment - Used to feed families - Very small area of land - Most work done by hand - Waste virtually no landExplain wet-rice agriculture.1. Field is prepared (typically using animal power). Hillsides are terraced (flat land needed to grow rice) 2. Field is flooded with water. Flooded field is called a sawah in Indonesia, and more commonly a paddy (Malay for wet rice) 3. Rice seedlings grown for the first month in a nursery are transplanted into the flooded field. 4. Rice plants are harvested with knives. The husks, or chaff, is beaten on the ground. The threshed rice is place in a tray for winnowing (lighter chaff is blown away by wind)What are some of the crops grown where wet-rice is not dominant?Most important: 1. Wheat. 2: Barley. - Millet, oats, corn, sorghum, soybeans - Cash crops: cotton, flax, hemp, tobaccoDefine aquaculture(Aquafarming) The cultivation of seafood under controlled conditions.Explain the trend of fish consumption over the last 50 years.27 million metric tons (1960). Over 100 million metric ton increase. 132 million metric tons (2012) - Developing countries: 5/6 of the increase. - Increased more rapidly that population growth.How does overfishing represent a problem?Overfishing: capturing fish faster than they can reproduce. - Decline of some fish species population - 1/4 overfished, 1/2 fully exploited, 1/4 underfishedExplain the business of grain farming.- Major crop on most farms is grain: wheat, corn, oats, barley, rice, and millet. - Commercial grain agriculture is distinguished from mixed crop and livestock farming because crops on a grain farm are grown primarily for consumption by humans rather than by livestock. - Large-scale grain production is heavily mechanized, conducted on large farms, and oriented to consumer preferences - Commercial grain farms sell output to food product manufacturers - Most important crop grown is wheat; high value per unit weight - Share of world production of wheat in developing countries has increased rapidly - Located in regions that are two dry for mixed crop and livestock agriculture - World leaders: China, India, the U.S.What are the three areas where grain farming is most concentrated?a. The winter wheat belt through Kansas, Colorado, and Oklahoma; planting in Autumn and harvesting in early summer b. Spring wheat belt through the Dakotas, Montana, and southern Saskatchewan in Canada; planting in spring and harvesting in late summer c. Palouse region of Washington StateWhy is the ability of the U.S. and Canada to produce so much grain important?The U.S. and Canada account for about 25% of the world's wheat exports. The ability to provide food for many people elsewhere in the world is a major source of economic and political strength for them.Define HorticultureThe growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. This as well as tree crops form the commercial base of Mediterranean farming.What is the most distinctive characteristic of mixed crop and livestock farming?The integration of crops and livestock. Most crops are fed to animals, and the livestock supply manure that allows more crops to grow.What are some of the benefits of it?It permits farmers to distribute the workload more evenly throughout the year. Fields require less attention in the winter than in the spring, when crops are planted, and in the fall, when they are harvested. This also reduces seasonal variations in income; most income from crops comes during the harvest season, but livestock products can be sold throughout the year.Explain the importance of access to markets.The way that developed countries use their land is generally determined by market forces of supply and demand. The value of the land affects the form of commercial agriculture practiced on it. The distance from the farm to the market influences the farmer's choice of crop to plant.Explain the Von Thunen Model.Geographers use the von Thunen model to help explain the importance of proximity to market in the choice of crops on commercial farms. Johann Heinrich von Thunan first proposed the model in 1826, in a book titled The Isolated State. According to this model, a commercial farmer initially considers which crops to cultivate and which animals to raise based on market location. The farmer compares two costs: the cost of the land and the cost of transporting products to market. Von Thunen found that specific crops were grown in different rings around the cities in the area.Identify and explain the "rings" of the Von Thunen Model.a. First ring: Market-oriented gardens and milk producers. Products are expensive to deliver and are perishable. b. Second ring: Wood lots: timber is cut for construction and fuel; closeness to market is important because of its weight. c. Third ring: various crops and pasture; specific commodity rotates annually. d. Fourth ring: Animal grazing; requires lots of space.How is crop selection related to transportation costs?Farms located closer to market tend to select crops with higher transportation costs per hectare of output, whereas more distant farms are more likely to select crops that can be transported less expensively.What is a dairy farm?A farm that specializes in the production of milk and other dairy products. Because milk is highly perishable, dairy farms must be closer to their markets than other products.Explain the relationship between the distance of a dairy farm from a city and the type of product produced with the milk.Dairy farms located farther from consumers are more likely to sell their output to processors that make butter, cheese, or dried, evaporated, and condensed milk. These products keep fresh longer than milk does and therefore can be safely shipped from remote farms. In general, the farther the farm is from large urban concentrations, the smaller is the percentage of output devoted to fresh milk.Explain two of the drawbacks to dairy farming: a. Labor-intensive b. Winter feeda. Cows must be milked twice a day, daily; the milking can be done by machines, but dairy farming still requires constant attention. b. Cows must be fed in the winter, when they may be unable to graze on grass. In Northwest Europe and the Northeastern U.S., farmers generally purchase hay or grain for winter feed. In the western part of the U.S. dairy region, crops are more likely to be grown in the summer and stored for winter feed on the same farm.START OF KEY ISSUE 4: What are the seven challenges facing agriculture?a. Losing agricultural land to competing uses. b. Improving the productivity of existing farmland. c. Conserving scarce resources, such as water and top soil. d. Identifying the appropriate role in agriculture for biotechnology. e. Balancing production of food for international trade rather than for consumption at home. f. Meeting the needs of people who are undernourished. g. Making greater use of organic farming.Explain how farmland is being lost to urbanization.The expansion of urban areas has contributed to reducing agricultural land. As urban areas grow in population and land area, farms on the periphery are replaced by urban land uses.What are some of the leading causes of desertification?- Semiarid lands that can support few pastoral nomads are overused because of rapid population growth - Excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting exhaust the soil's nutrients and hinder agriculture.According to Boserup, what are the two ways farmers are intensifying their production?a. New farming methods are adopted. Mechanization is introduced, labor becomes more intensive, supported by the increase in population growth. b. Land is left fallow for shorter periods. This expands the amount of land area devoted to growing crops at any given time.What are the 5 basic stages of the reduction of fallow farmland? Explain them.a. Forest fallow: Fields are cleared and used for 2 years, then left fallow for over 20 years (forest grows back) b. Bush fallow: Fields are cleared and used for up to 8 years and left fallow for up to 10 (small trees and bushes grow back) c. Short fallow: Fields are cleared and utilized for possibly 2 years and left fallow for up to 2 (wild grasses grow back) d. Annual cropping: Fields are used every year and rotates between legumes and roots e. Multi-cropping: Fields are used several times a year and never left fallowHow have "miracle seeds" improved agricultural productivity?They respond better to fertilization, mature faster, are less sensitive to variation in day length, and generally increase yields.Explain the history of fertilizer.- Has been long known that manure, bones, and ashes act as fertilizer or maintain land fertility - 1800s: scientists identify nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium as critical elements in fertilizer - Nitrogen: most important, found everywhere, China is leading producer of nitrogen fertilizer - Europeans more commonly use urea - Prices increase and become too expensive for many because fossil fuels are needed to produce - Phosphate rock reserves: China, Morocco, the U.S. - Potassium (potash) reserves concentrated in Canada, Russia, and the UkraineWhat are the two ways water can represent a challenge to agriculture?a. Lack of water is causing stress on agriculture in many regions. b. Too much water can cause soil erosion.What are the two main sources of California's water?a. Surface water, which is water that travels or gathers on the ground, like rivers, streams, and lakes. b. Groundwater, which is water that is pumped out from the ground.Explain the unique challenge California faces with regard to water.California's extended extreme drought is stressing agriculture, which uses 80% of the state's distributed water (urban areas use around 20%). Most of the water is in the north, whereas most of the demand is in the central and southern parts of the state.Define no tillageA farming practice that leaves all of the soil undisturbed and the entire residue of the previous year's harvest left untouched on the fields.Define GMO(Genetically modified organism) A living organism that posseses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.What are the benefits of GMOs?GMOs survive when herbicides and insecticides are sprayed on fields to kill weeds and insects. Also, GMOs have higher yields, increased nutrition, and more resistance to pests. They are also better-tasting.Explain the three reasons why some Africans oppose GMO usage.a. Health problems: - Eating a lot reduces effects of antibiotics - Destroy long-standing ecological balances in local agriculture b. Export problems: - European countries require GMOs to be labeled - Europeans believe GMOs are not nutritious and shun them - Africans fear that European customers will stop buying their food c. Increased dependence on the U.S.: - U.S. brands manufacture GMO seeds - Fear that "terminator" gene will prevent replanting and force them to buy more seedsGenerally, in what direction is food moving around the world?Western Hemisphere to Eastern Hemisphere. #1 exporter: Latin America (Brazil and Argentine). North America, Southeast Asia, and South Pacific are leading exporters.Explain the dilemma faced by developing countries about the best way to use available farmland.- The more land that is devoted to growing export crops, the less land available to grow crops for domestic consumption. - Money from export crops is then used to support people who switched from subsistence farming to growing export crops.Explain the global trade of the following three drugs: a. Cocaine b. Heroin c. Marijuanaa. Cocaine: - Coco leaf (Colombia) (Peru or Bolivia) - Most consumers are in developed countries (North America) - Source: Colombia by sea to Mexico (or other Central American countries) or other Central American countries and then by land through Mexico to the U.S. b. Heroin: - Raw opium gum (opium poppy plant) - Afghanistan: 90% of world's opium; remainder in Burma and Laos - Most flows from Afghanistan through Iran, Turkey, and the Balkans to Western Europe, where the largest numbers of the world's users live. - Second route goes through Central Asia to Russia c. Marijuana: - Cannabis sativa plant - Cultivated widely - Most in the U.S. comes from Mexico - Not expanding worldwide, although opium poppies and coca leaf areHow has the global demand for food changed relative to the global supply of food?- Supply has increased as demand increased - Sub-Saharan Africa: supply < demand - Famine in the Sahel and Horn of AfricaWhy have food prices risen dramatically over the last 10 years?a. Poor weather: - In major crop growing regions of the South Pacific and North America b. Higher demand: Especially in India and China c. Smaller growth in productivity: lack of major new "miracle" breakthroughs d. Use of crops as biofuels instead of food: Especially in Latin AmericaDefine undernourishmentDietary energy consumption that is continuously below that needed for healthy life and carrying out light personal activity.Where are the most undernourished people in the world?- 795 million people total; 21M in developing countries - South Asia + East Asia - India and China - Sub-Saharan Africa - Decreased from 2000-2015What is organic farming?Any farming or breeding of livestock that occurs without commercial fertilizers, synthetic pesticides, or growth hormones.What is the determining factor in how "clean" produce is?U.S. Department of Agriculture tests it. Ewg.org findings; "dvtest" (most pesticides)Explain the three government policies designed to improve the financial position of farmers.a. Farmers are encouraged to avoid producing crops that are in excess supply, and plant fallow crops (clover) to restore nutrients to soil. b. The government pays farmers when certain commodity prices are low. Profit: the difference between market price and government's target price. c. The government buys surplus production and sells or donates it to foreign governments. Low-income Americans receive food stamps.