Science weathering and erosion
Terms in this set (26)
Relationship between Weathering, Erosion, & Deposition
.Weathering is the process that breaks down rocks on the Earth's surface
.Erosion is the process that moves the weathered rocks to a new location
.Deposition is the process that drops/ lays down the weathered and eroded rocks in a new location
.BREAK - MOVE - DROP
Erosion and the 5 agents
.A process where weathered rock and soil is moved to another place.
.Plants help to prevent erosion by covering the surface and holding the soil with their roots.
Rock & soil move downhill. Landslides are triggered by 3 causes: earthquakes, volcanoes and rain. Mudflows/mudslides are loose rock, soil, and debris that are saturated with water and move by gravity. Mudslides can be slow or fast moving but tend to grow in size and momentum when they pick up trees, boulders, and other materials.
.Loose material is picked up and carried by the wind.
.Wind erosion is most active in deserts, plowed farmers fields & beaches.
.Small particles can travel long distances.
.Larger particles bounce & roll along the ground.
.Each tiny collision cuts, chips and polishes like a sand blaster - abrasion.
.Sand dunes form when the wind slows near hills and plants.
.Major form of erosion.
.It includes falling rain drops, runoff, streams, rivers, glacial or snow melt and groundwater.
.Gravity speeds the movement of water.
Faster moving water picks up more sediment.
.The amount of sediment running water carries is called the stream's load.
A large mass of moving snow and ice. Can form on mountaintops (valley glaciers) as well as in the Poles where snow piles up for years and turns to ice (continental glaciers). Melting and slope of land affect their movement.
Glaciers pick up rocks of all sizes as it moves (from sand and gravel to huge boulders). The rock carried by the glacier can polish or grind (creating distinct grooves or scratches) the rock the glacier passes over. Glaciers also push rock in front of them like a snowplow.
As a glacier moves through a valley it scrapes the bottom and sides of the valley picking up rocks and soil making the valley deeper and wider. It turns V shaped valleys into U shaped valleys.
Rock and soil deposited as the glacier melts and retreats.
A ridge of boulders, pebbles, sand and mud deposited by a melting glacier. Forms along the front (terminal moraine) or sides (lateral moraine) of the glacier.
Waves constantly erodes and shapes the shoreline.
Winds, storms, tides and occasionally earthquakes cause waves.
Rocks and sand carried and stirred up by waves increases the ability to erode the shoreline.
Some rocks resist wave erosion.
The different features that form are called sea cliffs, sea caves, and sea stacks.
The process by which sediments (eroded material) are laid down in a new location. This creates new (sedimentary) landforms.
Flat area that is found on both sides of a river or stream and is formed by sediments deposited during floods.
An elongate, relatively large, depression of the Earth's surface that is developed by stream erosion or glacial activity
U-shaped - formed by mature river or glacier
V-shaped - formed by immature river.
Large area of flat land that is raised high above sea level and that consists of horizontal rock layers formed by magma inside earth pushing the rock up as well as formed by rivers, flooding, or glacial activity.
A long, deep, narrow, very steep-sided valley cut primarily in bedrock with high walls in a mountainous area often with a stream/river flowing through it.
A large underground chamber - in a hillside or cliff. Formed by groundwater or wave erosion.
A low mound, ridge, bank or hill of loose, material (generally sand), either barren and capable of movement from place to place, or covered and stabilized with vegetation, but retaining its characteristic shape created by wind or waves.
Boulders/rocks that were eroded and deposited in new locations by glaciers
Tall skinny spires of rock that protrude from the bottom of arid basins formed by frost action and rain.
Arches commonly form where inland cliffs, coastal cliffs, fins or stacks are subject to erosion from the sea, rivers or wind.
U shaped body of water that forms when a wide meander from the main stem of a river is cut off.
Flat, sandy area that is formed by sediment being deposited at the mouth of a river when the current slows down as it reaches the ocean. It is triangle shaped.
When a glacier retreats and the depression made fills up with water.
Ex = Finger Lakes and Great Lakes
When loose soil acts like a liquid during an earthquake - underneath a solid layer of compact sediment, there is a loose layer of sandy soil that mixes with water during an earthquake and the ground will lose its strength.
Flat and wide area of sand deposited by waves and wind
A series of wedge shaped marks caused by glacial plucking. Marks tend to be crescent-shaped and oriented at right angles to the direction of ice movement.