36 terms

AP Human Geography Chapter 2 Vocab

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arithmetic density
the total number of people divided by the total land area
physiological density
the number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is suitable for agriculture
demographic regions/population distributions
1. 72.7% in Eurasia
2. 7.9% in North America
3. 13.2% in Africa
4. 5.7& in South America
5. .5% in Australia/Oceania

With 21% in China, 17% in India, and 4.6% in the U.S.
1 in 5 humans lives in one valley in one province of China: Red Basin of Sichuan
natality
birth rate, the number of live births per year per thousand population
mortality
death rate, number of deaths per year per thousand population
population explosion
a dramatic increase in world population since 1900. The crucial element triggering this explosion has been a dramatic decrease in the death rate, particularly for infants and children, in most of the world
Thomas Malthus
English economist and cleric was the most famous poineer observer of population growth with the publishing in 1798 of "An Essay on the Principle of Population," known as the "dismal essay." He believed that the huam ability to multiply far exceeds our ability to increase food production. He maintained that "a strong and constantly operating check on population" will necessarily act as a natural control on numbers. He regarded famine, disease, and war as the inevitable outcome of the human population's outstripping the food supply.
demographic transition
the process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population
zero population growth
when the total fertility rate, TFR, (measured as the average number of children born per woman during her reproductive lifetime, considered to be from 15 to 44 years of age)is at 2.1, which is a stabilized population, one that does not increase or decrease
age distribution
regions with overwhelmingly young populations: Latin America, Africa, and tropical Asia
regions with a large percentage of middle-aged people: USA, Europe, Japan
population pyramid
a bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
cohort
a group of individuals who share a common temporal demographic experience; not necessarily based only on age, but my also be baseed on criterea such as time of marriage, time of graduation, etc.; all individuals in a certain range
diaspora
scattered settlements of a particular national group living abroad
gender roles
culturally specific notions of what it means to be a man and what it means to be a woman, are closely tied to hwo many children are produced by couples
standard of living
refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distruibuted within a population. It is generally measured by standards such as income inequality, poverty rate, real (i.e. inflation adjusted) income per person. Other measures such as access and quality of health care, educational standards and social rights are often used, too. Examples are access to certain goods (such as # of fridges per 1000 people), or measures of heath such as life expectancy. It is the easy by which people living in a country are able to satisfy their wants
infant mortality rate
the number of infants per 1000 live births who die before reaching 1 yr of age
diffusion of fertility control
how fertility rates are lowered; during the final two stages of demographic transition depend on both the successful cultural diffusion of effective methods of birth control and the widespread acceptance of the notion that small families are preferable to large ones; fertility decline became accepted as countries industrialized large becomes children were no longer needed to help with farm work
disease diffusion
epidemiology
branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of poeple; uses geographic concepts to understand the distribution and method of diffusion of diseases; one might expect all diseases to spread exclusively by contagious diffusion; in fact, they spread through all types; relocation in the form of tourism, long-distance truck drivers; hierarchical such as AIDS in urban areas
maladaptation
anadaptation that is more harmful than helpful; it can also signify an adaptation that, whilst reasonable at the time, has become less and less suitable and more of a problem or hindrance in its own right, as time goes on. This is because it is possible for an adaptation to be poorly selected or become less appropriate or even become on balance more of a dysfunction than a positive adaptation
sustainability
the survival of a land-use system for centuries or millennia without destruction of the environmental base, allowing generation after generation to continue to live there
epidemiological transition model
disctictive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition; stages 1 and 2 are of pestilence and famine, infectious diseases, and accidents and attacks by animals and other humans; stages 3 and 4 are of degenerative and human-created diseases, e.g. cariovascular diseases, cancer; stage 5 is the stage of reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases
pandemic
a disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a high proportion of the population
demographic equation
summarizes the contribution made to regional population change over time by the combination of natural change (difference between births and deaths) and net migration (difference between in-migration and out-migration). Formula for population change: P2 = P1 + B - D + I - O, with P1 = population in time 1, P2 = population in time 2, B = births, D = deaths, I = in-migrants, O = out-migrants
dependency ratio
a simple measure of the number of economic dependents, old or young, that reach 100 people in the productive years (usually 15-64) must support. Population pyramids give a quick visual evidence of that ratio
rate of natural increase
the percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate
doubling time
the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
j-curve
a curve depicting exponential/geometric growth
s-curve
horizontal bending, or leveling, of a j-curve graph
ecumene
the part of the earth's surface physically suitable for permanent human settlement; the permanently inhabited areas of earth
overpopulation
the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
underpopulation
circumstances of too few people to sufficiently develop resources of a country or region to improve the level of living of its inhabitants
carrying capacity
the number of people an area can support on a sustained basis given the prevailing technology
population projection
estimates of future population size, age, and sex composition based on current data
neo-malthusian
argues two main points
1. the gap between population growth and resources is wider in some countries
2. the world population growth is outsripping a wide variety of resources, not just food production; viewpoint held that in orderto lift living standards, the existing national efforts to lower mortality rates had to be balanced by governmental programs to reduce birth rates
demographic momentum
(population momentum) the tendency for population growth to continue despite stringent family planning programs because of a relatively high concentration of people in the childbearing years
geodemography
population geography, the study of the spatial and ecological aspects of population, including density, distribution, fertility, gender, living standard, health, age, nutrition, mortality, and mobility