AP Human Geography Vocabulary(UNIT 4 )
Terms in this set (75)
The study of geography involving geographic states, borders, and how humans identify with them
a fundamental aspect of human behavior; refers to the need to lay claim to the spaces we occupy and the things we own; relates to the need for self-identity and freedom of choice
a set of attitudes and practices held by a people that shapes their political behavior. It includes moral judgments, political myths, beliefs, and ideas about what makes for a good society.
An invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory
a zone where no state exercises complete political control; usually uninhabited or sparsely inhabited; separates countries where a boundary cannot be found i.e. between Saudi Arabia and Yemen
Law of the Seas
laws establishing states' rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the Earth's waters and their resources
the political term used when referring to the breakup of a region or country into smaller regions or countries i.e. Yugoslavia was broken up in to six countries between 1989 and 1992centr
an area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values
a state's physical shape
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
An adhesive compact state with a large expansion
A state with a long, narrow shape
A state that includes several discontinuous territories
A state that completely surrounds another one
a country which is geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory
a country or part of a country mostly surrounded by the territory of another country or wholly lying within the boundaries of another country
surrounded entirely or almost entirely by land
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
a belief, creed or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation.
type of boundary within a state, for administrative purposes or to mark off cultural regions
dispute that occurs when two states can not come to agreement where a border is
the doctrine that a region should be controlled by the country to which they are ethnically or historically related
dispute that arises when neighboring states can't agree on policies that apply in a border area
an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
tightly knit group of people sharing a common language, ethnicity, religion, and other cultural attributes
a state whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity
a nation that doesn't fall under any state
countries that have high levels of development, a capacity at innovation and a convergence of trade flows
countries that usually have less development and are poorer countries
Those newly industrialized countries with median standards of living; they offer their citizens relatively diverse economic opportunities but also have extreme gaps between rich and poor.
a state that has more than one dominant region in terms of economics or politics
a city that ranks first in a nation in terms of population and economy
a symbolically relocated capital city, usually because of either economic or strategic reasons; sometimes used to integrate outlying parts of a country into the state
The study of the interactions among space, place, and region and the conduct and results of elections.
the process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the political party in power (usually used to turn "too close to call" states into a party's favor)
A rule by which the design of new electoral boundaries, must where possible, create electoral districts which have a majority population of some group which is a national minority
An attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economical, and cultural principles in another territory
The control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society
an internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
association of sovereign states by a treaty or agreement; deals with issues such as defense, foreign affairs, trade, and a common currency
a political philosophy in which a group is bound together with a governing representative head; the system in which the power to govern is shared between the national and state governments
The term applied to associations created by three or more states for their mutual benefit and achievement of shared objectives
an attitude that unifies people and enhances support for the state
religious, political, economic, conflict, etc. that causes disunity in a state
movements in which nationalities within a country may demand independence
the process of declining from a higher to a lower level of effective power or vitality or essential quality
The powerful emotional attachment to one's minority nation within a larger state
the study that analyzes geography, history and social science with reference to international politics; examines the political and strategic significance of geography, where geography is defined in terms of the location, size, and resources of places
Halford Mackinder early 20th century theory that claimed whichever state controlled the resource-rich "heartland" of Eastern Europe could eventually dominate the world. It would suggest that not the UK (an ocean-based empire), but Russia (which was becoming communist) would be in position to achieve this dominance
A political theory that holds that control of Eurasia and Africa is achieved via control of the countries bordering the Soviet Union
the state of political hostility that existed between the Soviet bloc countries and the US-led Western powers from 1945 to 1990.
a very powerful and influential nation (used especially with reference to the US and the former Soviet Union when these were perceived as the two most powerful nations in the world).
Concert of Europe
represented the balance of power that existed in Europe from the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) to the outbreak of World War I (1914).
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
the body responsible for making decisions for the UN for peacekeeping actions
an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programmes
North Atlantic Treaty Organization: An international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty to provide collective security to its members
The agreement between Communist states established in 1955 that opposed NATO
Organization of American States: 1962 (OAS) international organization that promotes peace and economic progress in the Americas
Political; Arab states, settle disputes, shape heritage, school curriculum, dealt with crime, drug abuse, labor issues, encouraged youth sports, advance role of woman
European Union: A supranational organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
African Union: (Political; All of Africa, get rid of colonization, imperialization & apartheid, became OAU in 1999 & goal was to take role of global economy)
Association of South East Asia Nations (Political; 1967 in Thailand, southeast countries, accelerate economic growth, social progress, & cultural development)
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Economic; started at Bagdad in 1960, coordinate and unify petroleum prices
United Nations: Most important, created after WWII, in 1945 including 49 stated, in 2006 192 states. 1955, 1960 & 1990 biggest addition of members
World Trade Organization Economic; worldwide, negotiate trade, settlements and trade disputes
North American Free Trade Agreement Economic; 1992, U.S, Canada, & Mexico, get rid of tariffs and barriers, over 15 years
the means by which a government adjusts its spending levels and tax rates to monitor and influence a nation's economy.
the transition to a more democratic political regime.
are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation.
is a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of liberalism, i.e. protecting the rights of the individual
a governing system in which, although elections take place, citizens are cut off from knowledge about the activities of those who exercise real power because of the lack of civil liberties
an economy in which decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are based on supply and demand, and prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system.
the process of transferring an enterprise or industry from the public sector to the private sector
the process or state of breaking or being broken into small or separate parts.
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