Chapter 42 Basic Microbiology

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Medical Assistants role in microbiology laboratory
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BotanyStudy of plantsBacteriology ZoologyStudy of bacteria Study of AnimalsImmunology ParasitologyStudy of resistance/immunity Study of parasitesMycologyStudy of fungusDNA stands for what?Deoxyribonucleic acidWhat is DNA?A nuclear material that contains specific genetic information.What is an incubator?Container that contains a constant temp of 35-37 degrees to grow BOTH aerobic or anaerobic organisms since temps must be met for adequate growthAerobic and anaerobicAerobic grows well in oxygen Anaerobic will not grow well, or even at all in oxygenCampylobatorFood poisoning in humans Cause for many spontaneous abortion in animals.Anaerobic EquipmentSome cultures such as deep wound cultures or gonorrhea need no oxygen and high carbon dioxide. 2 methods are the candle jar or the gas pack some culture tubes already have this in its packaginginoculateto place colonies of microorganisms onto nutrient media for culture testingCandle jar methodused for anaerobic cultures Place an inoculated petri dish in with a burning candle and airtight lid. The burning candle will burn up all available oxygen and generate CO2 Easy to transport and maximizes the recovery rateGas pack methodjar containing a foil pack when activated it gives off CO2, decreasing oxygen not usually done in small labs, usually in reference labsInoculating Loop Inoculating NeedleLoop: piece of wire with rounded end and handle at the other end used to inoculate organisms such as liquid, or placing on a media plate. Needle: similar to loop but a straight end used when performing stab culture or a solid bacteria both must be sterile or a plastic one time use one used.What is the quickest method to sterilize the inculcating loop or needle?IncineratorWhat types of incinerators are there?electrical incinerator or Bunsen burner Used before and after the use of inculcating loop or needle. Place the loop or needle in the incinerator or through the flame of the Bunsen burner.In the laboratory what does the term media refer to?a host of substances used to foster the growth of bacteriaWhy do we need a refrigerator in the POL?Store certain material such as media, and testing kits that need a temp of 2 to 8 degree Celsius We never store food or drinks with any specimens, kits or media.Why are microbiology specimens especially dangerous?Potential pathogens that can pose danger to all clinical and laboratory personnelWhat should never be done in the lab?Eating, smoking, drinking, putting objects into mouth, touching eyes, noses or mouths.What PPE should be worn at all times when processing microbiology specimens?Buttoned lab coat or apron, safety googles, and gloves. Also you will want to work behind a shield to avoid splashes of blood or body fluids and use a safety fume hoodHow should we keep our work area where specimens are processed and cultivated?The counters should be cleaned with a strong germicide before and after daily use and immediately after a spill. It should be kept dust free, organized and clean at all times. Keep body and paperwork away from incineratorsWhat 5 things need to be done when handling specimens?1. Look for leaks or contamination on outside of containers 2. wear gloves 3. use appropriate container to avoid contamination 4. all specimens should be handled as if they were contaminated, follow Standard Precautions 5. Use safety hood with aersol specimensNormal FloraNatural bacteria. 80% of all bacteria are harmless and necessary for our bodily immune system, digestion, homeostatis (balance)Nomenclaturetwo part system used for naming bacteria using two Greek or latin names Genus, first part and is capitalized Species, second not capitalizedWhat do the names of bacteria reflect?The characteristics , or names of places or persons associated with discovery of it2 examples of names of bacteria and how they got their nameSalmonella typhi: discovered by Salmon, caused typhoid fever Lord Joseph Lister found listeria and Listerine was named after him for his work with antisepticsBacterial cell is a single celled organism with what 3 parts?1. Jelly like cytoplasmic cell membrane 2. cell wall 3. nucleusWhat allows SOME bacteria to have mobility?Flagella: Again not all bacteria are mobileMitosisCell grows by taking in material from its environment then divides into 2 identical parts each with its own nucleus.NosocomialInfection acquired or caused by hospital or medical proceduresHow long should a culture grow before examining?12 hrsCulture and Sensitivity (C&S)Determines the most effective antibiotic to prescribe. It is reported as: "sensitive to" penicillin as an example, meaning penicillin is the most effective. also as "resistant to" one that is not effective or "intermediate" for barely responds. Not always ordered but will if pt is not responding to treatment