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17 terms

AP Biology- Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

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Glycolysis
10 step, anaerobic process that breaks down 1 glucose and releases 4 ATP. It occurs in the cytoplasm and produces 2 NADHs, 2 NADs, and 2 pyruvic acid
phosphodfructokinase (PFK)
enzyme that catalyzes step 3 of glycolysis. ATP inhibits it if it (ATP) is present in large quantities in the cell
Krebs Cycle
process that starts when acetyl CoA combines with OAA to produce citric acid, occurs in the mitochondria matrix, and produces 3 NADHs, 1 ATP, 1 FADH and CO2. Each turn of it uses 1 pyruvate (each glucose produces 2 turns of this cycle).
NAD and FAD
coenzymes that carry protons or electrons from glycolysis and Krebs Cycle to the ETC
oxidation
loss of hydrogen atoms
cytochrome
any iron-containing that serve as electron carriers in either cellular respiration or photosynthesis
fermentation
anaerobic breakdown glucose that produces 2 ATP and alcohol and lactate
prep reaction
reaction that oxidizes pyruvate into aceytl-CoA with the release of CO2
pyruvate
end product of glycolysis
substrate level phosphorylation
process which ATP is converted to ADP by transferring a phosphate to a metabolic substance
C3 plant
plant that fixes carbon through the calvin cycle
C4 plant
plant that fixes carbon to produce a C4 molecule which releases CO2 into the Calvin cycle
Calvin Cycle
dark reaction. Reduces CO2 into a carbohydrate
CAM
C4 plant that fixes carbon at night
cyclic electron pathway
portion of light reaction that generates ATP and only involves photosystem 1
light reaction
portion of photosynthesis that captures solar energy, produces NADPH and ATP
RuBP Carboxylase
enzyme that starts the Calvin cycle by catalyzing attachment of carbon atom from CO2 to RuBP