A type of internal migration - the movement of people from rural areas (the countryside) to urban areas (towns and cities).
Migration between countries.
Migration for a short period of time (weeks or years).
Migration with the intention of staying forever / a long time.
When people are forced to move.
Why are people forced to migrate?
Natural disasters. War. Political persecution. Religious or ethnic persecution. Redevelopment or resettlement.
When people choose to move.
Why do people voluntarily migrate?
New or better job. Retirement. University/school. Healthcare. Better environment
Moving for work.
Moving for a particular season.
Movement from home to work
Things that drive people away from their current location.
Things that attract people to a new location.
Push Factors of Origin Country
No available jobs / low salaries. Environmental problems. Poor education or housing.
Pull Factors of Origin Country
Friends and family and home. Familiar culture; understand language and country.
Push Factors of Destination Country
Better and job and salaries. Better services. Peaceful and safe. Friends and family live there.
Pull Factors of Destination Country
Cost of housing. Racial tension, language barriers and a different culture. No friends and family.
Problems that a migrant may face on his or her journey.
Examples of Intervening Obstacles
Shortage of money. Language barriers. Passport or visa issues. Bad weather. Transport delays. Housing problems.
Money sent home to family by migrants living in a different location, generally overseas.
Advantages for Source Country of Migration
Reduced unemployment. Reduced pressure on services. People receive remittances. Relations improved with foreign country. Migrants learn new skills.
Disadvantages for Source Country of Migration
Skilled and educated people leave ('brain drain'). Dependency ratio increases as the economically-active leave. People become more dependent on remittances. Shortage of workers. Separation of family.
Advantages for Destination Country of Migration
More workers to do low-paid jobs. More skilled workers ('brain gain'). Cultural sharing and exchange. Improved links with source country.
Disadvantages for Destination Country of Migration
Possibility of racial tension. Inflation caused by increased demand. Increase pressure on services. Possibility of unemployment. Pressure on housing, electricity, water supplies etc. Increased congestion and pollution.
A person who has been forced to leave their home and country.
When someone is attacked due to their beliefs.
Reasons for Becoming a Refugee
War or famine. Natural disasters. Political persecution. Religious or ethnic persecution.
Problems Faced by Refugees
No hosing. Shortage of resources (food, water). No job or money. None or limited clothing. Poor medical care leading to sickness. Safety concerns. Language barriers. No education for children.
Problems Faced by Refugee-Receiving Country
Cost or providing / shortage of food and water. Cost of providing education for children and medical care. Possible spread of disease to locals. Increased pollution and congestion. Possible racial tension and language barriers. Increased unemployment. Possibility of inflation because of rising demand.