54 terms

CIS Unit 2

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

arithmetic logic unit
The part of a processor that performs arithmetic (addition or subtraction) and logic (AND, OR, AND NOT) calculations.
clock speed
The speed at which the processor executes the instruction cycle.
control unit
The part of the processor that manages the mvement of data through the CPU.
CPU (central processing unit)
The brain of a computer; housed inside the system unit on the motherboard. It consists of two parts: the arithmetic logic unit and the control unit.
gigahertz (GHz)
Used to measure the speed at which a processor executes the information cycle. A GHz is equal to one billion cycles per second.
hardware
The physical components of a computer.
instruction cycle
The steps a CPU uses to process data: fetch, decode, execute, also store. Also known as the fetch-and-execute cycle or the machine cycle.
multi-core processor
A processor that consists of two or more processors integrated on a single chip. Multi-core processing increases the processing speed over single-core processors and reduces
parallel processing
A mode of computer operation in which a process is split into parts that execute simultaneously on different processors attached to the same computer.
peripheral device
(computer science) electronic equipment connected by cable to the CPU of a computer, "disk drives and printers are important peripherals.
pipelining
A form of computer organization in which successive steps of an instruction sequence are executed in turn by a sequence of modules able to operate concurrently, so that another instruction can be begun before the previous one is finished.
processor
The central processing unit of a computer. Prepares and stores data for later use.
AGP
Accelerated graphics port; The standard analog video port on computers manufactured before 2009
BIOS
Basic Input Output System; A program stored on a chip on the motherboard that's uused to start up the computer.
Bluetooth
A technology designed to connect peripherals wirelessly at short ranges.
cache memory
A type of very fast memory that's used to store frequently accessed information close to the processor.
CMOS
Complementary metal oixide semiconductor; A volatile form of memory that uses a small battery to provide it with power to keep the data in memory even when the computer is turned off. It stores settings that are used by the BIOS.
data bus
The wires on the motherboard over which information flows between the components of the computer.
drive controller
Located on the motherboard, it provides a drive interface, which connects disk drives to the processor.
EIDE
Enhanced integrated drive electronics; A legacy drive interface fouund on the motherboard of older personal computers.
expansion card
A card that plugs directly into an expansion slot on a motherboard and allows you to connect additional peripheral devices to a computer. Video cards. sound cards, network cards, TV tuners, and moderns are common expansion cards. Also called adapter cards.
FireWire
A hot-swappable port that can connect up to 63 devices per port. It also allows for peer-to-peer communication between devices, such as two video cameras, without the use of a computer. Also known as IEEE 1394.
hot-swappable
A device that can be plugged and unplugged without turning off the computer.
IEEE 1394
Same as WireFire.
memory
Temporary storage that's used by a computer to hold instructions and data.
motherboard
The main circuit board of a computer. It houses the CPU.drive controllers and interfaces, expansions slots, data buses, ports and connectors, BIOS, and memory and may also include integrated peripherals, such as video, sound, and network cards. It provides the way for devices to attach to your computer.
PCI
Peripheral component interconnect; The most common type of expansion slot on a motherboard that an expansion card plugs into.
PCI express
A faster version of PCI that's typically used to connect a video card.
port
A way to connect a peripheral device to a motherboard.
PS/2 port
Used to connect the mouse to the keyboard. USB ports have widely replaced these.
RAM
Random access memory; A form of volatile memory that holds the operating systems, programs, and data the computer is currently using. Any information left in the memory is lost when the power is turned off.
ROM
Read-only memory; A nonvolatile form of memory that doesn't need power to keep its data.
SATA
Serial ATA; The standard internal drive interface.
serial and parallel ports
Legacy ports used to connect peripheral devices to a computer.
system unit
The case that encloses and protects the power suppy, the motherboard, CPU and memory of a computer. It also has drive bays to hold the storage devices and openings for peripheral devices to connect to expansion cards on the motherboard.
USB
Universal serial bus; A standard port type that's used to connect many kinds of devices, including printers, mice, keyboards, digital cameras, cell phones, and external devices. Up to 127 devices can share a single USB port.
USB hub
A device used to connect multiple USB devices to a singe USB port.
SCSI
Small computer system interface; Is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices. Best connection for peripheral, because it's faster and more reliable.
circuit board
An insulated board on which interconnected circuits and componenets such as microchips are mounted or etched.
flash memory
The technology used by solid-state storage devices, such as flash drives and memory cards, to store data. The data is stored on a chip.
flash drive
A small, portable, solid-state drive that can hold up to 128 GB of information. They hav become the standard for transporting data. Also called key drives, thumb drives, pen drives, or jump drives.
hard drive
The main mass-storage device in a computer. A form of nonvolatile storage; when the computer is powered off, the data isn't lost. The primary hard drive holds the operating system, programs, and data files. Also called hard disk or hard disk drive.
memory card
A form of solid-state storage used to expand the storage of digital cameras, video games, and other devices.
SSD
Solid-state drive; a small drive often used in small electronic devices, such as media players and cell phones, as well as in notebooks and netbooks.
QR code reader
A program on a mobile device that can scan and decode the information found in a QR code such as a URL or more information about a product.
headphones
An output device that converts digital signals into sound. They come in several different sizes and styles, ranging from tiny earbuds that fit inside your ear to full-size hjeadphones that completely cover your outer ear. Headphones that also include a microphone are called headsets.
monitor
A video output device that works by lighting up pixels on a screen. Each pixel contains three colors: red, green, and blue (RGB). From that base, all colors can be created by varying the intensities of the three colors.
pixel
A single point on a display screen. Short for picture elements. Each pixel contains three colors: red, green, and blue (RGB). From that base, all colors can be created by varying the intensities of the three colors.
output device
A device that returns information to the user.
projector
A video output device typically used when making a presentation or sharing mdeia with a group in such places as classrooms, businesses, and home threaters because they can produce larger output than a monitor.
resolution
The number of horizontal pixels by vertical pixels, for example 1280 x 1024 or 1024 x 768, on a display screen. The higher the resolution, the sharper the image.
sound card
An expansion card that provides audio connections for both input devices (microphones and synthesizers) and ouput devices (speakers and headphones).
speakers
An output device that converts digital signals from a computer or media player into sound.
video card
An expansion card that provides the data signal and connection for a monitor or projector. It may also include input ports to connect a TB tuner or another video device to the system.