MIDTERM- Friedlander

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Torah
first five books of the Old Testament

most sacred text in Jewish religion

The Torah is believed to be dictated by God to Moses
ethnocentrism
judging other cultures by the standards of your own culture
What were the Arabs views towards Israelis?
resented them
How did Palestinians feel as the Zionists began to fund themselves and progress?
felt left behind
Hebron Massacre 1929
Arab riots
their motto is "slaughter all jews!"
refugee
a person who flees from their homeland to seek safety
What lands were seized by the Israelis during 1967?
Sinai Peninsula, Golan Heights, West Bank, Gaza, east Jerusalem
reprisal
forceful acts in response to an injury
What is the Israeli response to PLO terrorist acts?
fierce disproportionate reprisals
intifada
mass uprising by Palestinians in territory held by Israel
What were the causes of the Arab- Israeli conflict?
Jews were determined to build a homeland in Palestine

Palestinians wanted to be an autonomous people

UN Partition Plan of 1947

McMahon- Hussein Correspondence

Balfour Declaration

British Mandate

War of Independence

Israel's establishment as a Jewish state

Anti-semitism and anti-judaism
What is the root of the problem regarding the Arab Israeli conflict?
neither side is willing to compromise. Both believe their religious teachings justify their cause.
In 1948, how did the Arabs feel about their situation with the newly formed state of Israel?
They felt more powerful (they thought they had a better army, more allies, etc.) it would be an easy win. Palestinians said no to UN partition plan because they believed if there was a war, they would win and get ALL the land
market economy
people buy and sell goods/ services

businesses produce and sell money; people earn money to buy what they need or want

businesses decide what they will produce based on consumer interest
command economy
the government controls what can be produced, how it can be produced, and what it costs

people can only sell to others on a small scale

little or no economic power

aka communism
traditional economy
people produce most of what they need to survive

if they produce more food than they need, they trade the surplus for goods from others
mixed economy
individuals make some economic decisions and the govt. makes others
atman
essential self
reincarnation
rebirth of the soul in various forms (reward/punishment system)
karma
the belief that every deed, mental or physical in this life affects a person's fate in a future life
dharma
duties and obligations
Renaissance
product of the Crusades

1400-1600

Church authority was weakened

time when indulgences were sold to pay for Renaissance artists to paint the Church

beginnings of the Protestant reformation
indulgence
official document the church gives to pardon one's sins
How did Islam spread?
Arab armies shared the same beliefs

people welcomed Arabs and their religion

Muslims were tolerant conquerors

trade routes

Mohammed's marriages to women from different tribes and clans than his own
What marked the beginning of the expansion of Islam?
the hejira, or the migration of Muhammed and his followers from Mecca to Medina
Right of Return
The United Nation's guaranteed right of a refugee to return to his or her home country to live

The Palestinians belief that they have the right to return to their native land

Palestinians claim they have this which would give them their land back
Muslim family life
Muslim family life was patriarchal (the father had the final say on all matters)

women usually sought their husband's approval and children were expected to obey there parents

only obedience to god is considered more important then the respect of one's parents

marriages were arranged (between same social class or trade/profession)

divorce was easier for men than women. men just had to say "I divorce you" on three separate occasions and make a payment to the woman's family. In contrast, a woman who wanted to divorce had to take her case before a judge.
Four Noble Truths
1) suffering is universal

2) the cause of suffering is desire

3) the only way to end suffering is to crush desire

4) the way to end desire is to follow the Noble Eightfold Path
diffusion
the movement of customs or ideas from one place to another
technology
the skills and tools people use
subculture
group of people within a society who share certain beliefs, values, and customs
racism
belief that one race is superior to the other
culture
all the things that make up a people's entire way of life
nuclear family
includes a wife, husband, and their children
extended family
several generations living in one household
democracy
people have supreme power
republic
the people choose the leaders who represent them
dictatorship
a ruler or group that holds power by force
Geography of Australia vs. New Zealand
Australia: flat and dry; struggling to overcome a scarce water supply
New Zealand: mountainous and green; stable water source
Similarity: the geography of both supports sheep; most live on the coast
Natural Resources of Australia vs. New Zealand
Australia: minerals and fossil fuels, sugarcane, cotton
New Zealand: fruits and vegetables
Similarity: sheep, cattle, grains
Women in Islam
Among muslims, traditions and customs made women subordinate to men. According to the Koran, "Men are the managers of the affairs of women." During childhood, a girl had to obey her father. After marriage she had to obey her husband and her husband's father

Muslims believed that women were more likely than men to bring dishonor to the family. Women were expected to be modest and to remain secluded within the home

They wore veils to conceal their faces from men who were not part of their family

In some muslim homes, women used separate entrances and ate their meals only in the company of other women

Women is islamic societies knew they were secure. (their fathers, sons, brothers, and husbands would protect and provide for them. Also within their homes and with their children, women had considerable influence.
What rights could women in islam have?
The koran outlawed the practice of killing unwanted babies that were female

Under islamic law, women also gained the right to free education and to own or inherit property

although the koran made women subordinate to men, in the eyes of God they were all seen as equal
caliph
successor to the prophet
10 Downing Street
bombing that occurred in 1991 at the official residence and office of the English Prime Minister
Israeli culture
...
Dravidians
falsely thought to be people, actually a language family
The United Kingdom
encompasses England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland
moksha
spiritual knowledge and liberation from the cycle of rebirth

unseeable goal
samsara
indefinite cycle of birth, suffering, death, and rebirth (the process)
karma (relating to moksha)
law of cause and effect

can either take you closer or further away from moksha (the force)
dharma (relating to moksha)
obedience to religious and moral laws (the requirement)
Who can achieve moksha?
only brahmin men
Monotheism
the belief in one god
Nirvana
the condition of wanting nothing
nationalist terrorism
seek to form a separate state for their own national group

ex: Kurds in Northern Iraq; Irish Republican Army; Palestine Liberation Organization
5 Pillars of Islam
1) Muslims proclaim their belief in one God
2) prayer- 5 times a day they must face Mecca
3) almsgiving- charity to the poor and the aged
4) fasting during the holy month of Ramadan
5) hajj- pilgrimage to Mecca; walk around Kaaba 7 times, touch stone, and symbolically throw rocks at the devil
The Caste System
Brahmins--- priests
Kshatriyas--- warriors
Vaishyas--- merchants, landowners
Shudras--- servants, subordinate to all other castes
George Mitchell
former U.S. Senator who attempted to compromise peace between Palestine and Israel, and Ireland and Northern Ireland

key negotiator
Aborigines
nomadic hunters and gatherers from the mainland Australia
What disease killed around 50% of Australia's indigenous population?
small pox
Describe Aboriginal culture
diverse
ancient (dating back 75,000 years)
one of the oldest known civilization on Earth
How did aborigines share their religious beliefs?
shared through oral traditions
What were Aborigine spiritual values based on?
based upon deep love and respect for the land and a belief in Dreamtime
What is dreamtime?
time before time
Maoris
indigenous people of New Zealand
Michael Collins
Head of IRA during Irish civil war (1922-1923)
John Calvin
anti-Catholic
influenced by Martin Luther
believed in predestination
predestination
at birth it is decided if you will go to heaven or hell

a purified approach to life shows you have been chosen to go to heaven
Margaret Thatcher
known as the "Iron Lady"

famous line regarding the hunger strikers in prison: crime is crime is crime. There will be no political status given to criminals

polarizing figure

Prime Minister during the height of the Troubles (1979-1990)
Palestinian refugees
displaced after Israel war for independence and forced into refugee camps
Martin Luther
German leader of the Protestant reformation, questioned the Roman Catholic Church, was excommunicated.

Wrote the 95 theses
Jesus of Nazareth
people of faith and people of history agree he existed

Jesus believed Judaism had focused too much on rituals and temples, he was trying to reform it
Brahman
single supreme force each god that Hindus worship were apart of
Dalai Lama
leader of Tibetan Buddhism
Henry VIII
English king who created the Anglican church after the Pope refused to annul his marriage with Catherine of Aragon
Why did Henry VIII want a divorce with Catherine of Aragon?
he wanted a son to be their and continue the Tudor name
Vaisyas
Caste of the common people (merchants, artisans, and farmers)
Jimmy Carter
During his presidency, Carter hosted talks between Menachem Begin of Israel and Anwar Sadat of Egypt that led to the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty
Bill Clinton
facilitated the Camp David Summit of 2000 and the 1993 Oslo Accords
Theresa May
...
Yasser Arafat
The PLO leader who agreed in 1988 to recognize Israel's right to exist
Sunni Muslim
believe the first four caliphs were rightful successors to the prophet Muhammed but subsequent leaders may be baed on Islamic political realities of the time
Shiite Muslim
believe the true leaders of Islam must be descendants of Ali, the fourth caliph and Muhammed's son-in-law
Why did Islam split?
succession issue
Hebrews
the ethnic group claiming descent from Abraham and Isaac (especially from Isaac's son Jacob)

aka Jews
Aryans
not a race, but a title

means noble in Sanskrit

didn't conquer dravidians

no aryan invasion because aryans as a people didn't exist
Who in hinduism has the power? How is it similar in christianity?
priests have spiritual power, warriors have physical power
Constantine
made Christianity legal within the Roman empire

312 he has a vision of Christ on the cross which leads him to victory in a battle
Muhammed
...
prophet
someone who speaks directly to God
The Buddha
○ Nepalese prince
○ Age 29: rejected luxurious life to seek
○ Ascetic life: the practice of the denial of physical or psychological desires in order to attain a spiritual ideal or goal
○ Rejected Asceticism and achieves Nirvana
○ Buddha at age 35
Mahmoud Abbas
provisional president of the PLO after Arafat dies
Theodore Herzl
Jewish writer who called for a separate homeland where Jews would be safe from persecution (pamphlet called "The Jewish State, 1896). He founded the Zionist movement to fulfill these aims
James Cook
known as the "father" of Australia
Gerry Adams
leader of Sinn Fein
Oliver Cromwell
replaced King charles I
emerged out of the Irish rebellion and English civil war
sent to ireland to crush the irish rebellion
kills 3, 000 in Drogheda and 3, 500 in Wexford
conquered ireland brutally
11 million acres of land are given to British Protestant settlers
Irish are sold into slavery
Anwar al-Sadat
Egypt's president who signed the Egypt-Israel Peace Agreement

later assassinated by 4 of his own men because he was seen as a traitor
A.O. Neville
Chief Protector of Aborigines in Western Australia from 1917-1936
Took children away from families to discontinue the Aboriginal race
Did it because he cared about them
Yitzhak Rabin
Prime Minister of Israel during Clinton's administration (signed Oslo Accords); assassinated by Israeli extremist in Tel Aviv in 1995
Bobby Sands
IRA member who led the 1981 Hunger Strike

elected to Parliament from a city in Belfast, while he was still in prison
Benjamin Netanyahu
current Israeli Prime Minister
2000 Camp David Summit
July- talks between Barak and Arafat break down over timing and extent of proposed further Israeli withdrawal from West Bank
Camp David Agreement 2000
97% of West Bank (over several years) and ALL of Gaza would be given to Palestine

East Jerusalem will become the capital of the new Palestinian state

Israelis would continue to control water sources in West Bank

All refugees could apply for compensation of property from international fund (UN)

Before any gradual Israeli withdrawal, all Palestinian terrorist infrastructure must be dismantled
Who refused the Camp David Agreement?
Arafat
Why did Arafat refuse the Camp David Agreement?
he wanted...
- immediate withdrawal of Israelis from occupied territories
- right of return
- the Temple Mount
he is afraid of being assassinated
An Gorta Mor (The Great Hunger)
aka the Irish potato famine, even though there never really was a famine

Primary factor that caused Irish immigration

a bacteria infected all the potato population of EUROPE, not just Ireland
What was the importance of the potato?
not indigenous to europe

was introduced in 1500s by the Spanish

viewed as the perfect peasant food

50 to 100 years before the Famine, Ireland's population skyrocketed because of the introduction of potatoes
Why was the potato viewed as the perfect peasant food?
easy to grow
grows anywhere
lots of calories
doubled Europe's food supply
Ireland's population has still not recovered from the
potato blight
When did the famine begin to hit?
1840s
Ireland and everyone in Ireland have been British subjects since
1801 (when the Union Jack was formed)
famine
sudden, sharp reduction in food supply resulting in widespread hunger
The ships Irish emigrated on during the Famine were called...
coffin ships
Most of the people who own land in Ireland are
absentee landlords
Who were the heroes of the Blight?
quakers and soup kitchens
What was more important to the British than feeding the starving population of ireland?
making money
Food exports (increased,decreased) as people continued to starve
increased
The Irish were forced to send all of their "cash crops" where?
England
Ireland was not the only country where peasants depended on ______________, but those countries did not experience such a severe famine
potatoes
Diaspora
70 CE

15-16 million Jews dispersed throughout world

expelled from their home in Palestine

religion drastically changed after
Sorry Day 1998
May 26th

marches where different members of the Australian community in major cities like Melbourne and Sydney are getting together to say "sorry"
Many local governments, churches apologize for their role in the program
no federal apology
Aborigines Act of 1905
made the Chief Protector the legal guardian of every Aborigine and half-caste child under the age of 16 years in Western Australia
Battle of Bogside
spark that sets off the Troubles

Loyalist apprentice boys march in honor of Protestant siege of Derry in 1689 IN CATHOLIC SIDE OF BOGSIDE against the will of the Catholics

rioting ensues

Protestant police turn to British military, something unheard of
1972 Bloody Sunday
civil rights march in Derry on January 30 against internment policies (started out as a peaceful protest)

crowd gets rowdy and begins to throw rocks at British military forces

British paratroopers open fire and kill 13 Roman Catholics

British investigation will later exonerate the soldiers, suggesting the demonstrators were terrorists linked to the IRA

decades later, the British government concedes and admits they lied
Dreyfus Affair
Anti-Semitic event involving a Jewish Captain in the French army who was falsely accused of selling military secrets to Germany

seen by many as proof that Jews were untrustworthy

When it was discovered that Dreyfus had been innocent the whole time, the authorities refused to reopen the case. Although Dreyfus was eventually freed, he was not officially declared innocent until 1906
Intifada
Palestinian uprising involving civilians
Oslo Accords 1993
Rabin Yitzhak and PLO leader, Yasser Arafat sign Oslo Declaration to plot Palestinian self-government and FORMALLY END FIRST INTIFADA. Violence by Palestinian groups that reject Oslo declaration continues. Israelis and Palestinians had secretly been talking in Oslo, Norway about signing a peace treaty; however, it never became a peace treaty it was only an agreement to BEGIN negotiating peace
- establish a 5 year transition period in which Israeli forces would withdraw from Gaza Strip and West Bank
- Palestinians can return home
The Troubles
civil war between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland from 1967 to late 1990s
1967 Arab-Israeli War
After months of tension, including border skirmishes, Egypt's expulsion of the UN buffer force from Sinai and its closure of the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping, Israel launched a pre-emptive attack on Egypt. Jordan and Syria join the war. Jewish settlements are set up in all of these areas in coming years, with government approval. Egyptian Air Force is annihilated.
- The war lasts six days and leaves Israel in control of east Jerusalem, all of West Bank, Gaza, Golan Heights, and Sinai
Good Friday Agreement
...
Crusades
8 attempts to remove Ottoman Turks from Jerusalem

Pope Urban II called for a crusade, or holy war against the Muslims

believed it was the will of God

the goal was to capture Palestine

for the next 200 years, Christians poured into Palestine
What were the motives of the popes in calling for the Crusades?
wanted to increase the power of the Roman Church and regain control of Byzantine Church

hoped to reduce fighting in Europe by sending feudal armies to distant lands
What were the causes of the Crusades?
Muslims controlled the Holy Land

Byzantine empire feared Muslim turks would destroy Constantinople
What does Pope Urban II say in regards to the Crusades?
Pope Urban II called for Christians to join a crusade at the council of Clermont

said it was God's will and that you will be resolved of all your sins if you fight this battle
Why did people become "crusaders"
they were driven by religious and economic fantasies and they were eager to escape debt and taxes at home

economic: permission to loot and steal at will
religious: they hoped to achieve salvation
Describe British colonization of Australia beginning in 1788
1788- First Fleet in Botany Bay
- Europeans arrive in Australia (terra nullius)

1790- First contact in many areas between natives and settlers. Misunderstandings. Death through disease. Frontier wars. Resistance and battles.

1837- Board of Protection of Aborigines established
What were the effects of the Crusades?
trade increased
- returning crusaders brought new goods, spices, and textiles to Europe
kings gained more power
- the land of many nobles were left vulnerable
knowledge of Muslim culture spread throughout Europe
relations between Christians and Jews became strained
Church loses prestige
Renaissance
Black Death
What was the British mindset regarding aborigines?
they are immature children/animals
underdeveloped species that needs to be protected from itself
What was the incompatibility between the British culture and the Aborigine culture?
Europeans believed the land belonged to them, Aborigines believed they belonged to the land
What was the board of protection of aborigines given the power to do?
decide where aborigines lived
What is Australia as a piece of land referred to when it is first settled?
terra nullius- land belonging to no one
Protestant Reformation
an attempt to reform the Catholic Church
What did Martin Luther write?
95 theses which criticized...

power of the pope
extreme wealth of church
indulgences
What happens after Luther is put on trial?
excommunicated

went into hiding- translated New Testament into German

believed you make your own personal connection to God, the Church is useless
Protestant reformation causes
crusades

Black Death

western schism (French won't accept Italian pope vice versa)

printing press

renaissance values of secularism led people to question the Church

European princes and kings were jealous of the church's wealth

powerful monarchs challenged the Church as supreme power
First Intifada 1987
December- first intifada uprising begins in occupied territories (West Bank & Gaza).

muslim brotherhood in Gaza FORMS HAMAS movement, which rapidly turns to violence against Israel.
Second Intifada 2000
Likud leader Ariel Sharon visits Jerusalem's holy site known to Jews as the Temple Mount and to Muslims as Al-Haram al-Sharif. This escalates Palestinian protests into new wave of violence
Great Britain
United Kingdom
Map of Middle East
Vedas
most scared text in Hinduism