Part 1: A new approach for complex problems
Terms in this set (51)
In the waterfall methodology, the duration of the activities, like development, testing, etc are
a. Planned to be fixed irrespective of any calculation (time boxed)
b. Predicted using some calculations based on "today's weather"
c. Never decided upfront
B. The waterfall activities are estimated and calculated well in advance based on today's knowledge and assumptions. Their duration will vary depending on the calculations. They are not time boxed; they do not have fixed durations.
In waterfall, the project team often gets early feedback from customers or markets about the product they are building, so they can act on this feedback on time.
Waterfall-based projects rarely offer any opportunity to get early feedback about product.
What factors will increase complexity? Select all that apply
a. Larger number of project people
b. Longer duration of the project
c. Batching of product release into one big bang
a, b, and c. All these factors will increase complexity.
Building complex products like software is a complex adaptive problem. Complex adaptive problems are
c. Hard to predict even using the history of the past.
C. Complex adaptive problems are hard to predict.
What is the empiricism theory about?
1. It divides complex problems into short-term iterations. There is no big scope of working spanning long duration.
2. It uses a small team to perform these few weeks of work.
3. The small team creates
Select the best answer. Scrum is a newer way of doing things to address complex problems. It is a newer way because:
a. It offers new terminology for traditional practices.
b. It is easier to master (implement) than the traditional way.
c. It increases the opportunity to control risk and optimizes and predictability progress.
d. It is closely associated with emerging technologies.
C. Scrum brings in new terminology but it is not the primary difference. It is easy to learn but difficult to master. Scrum does not guarantee success, but it increases the likelihood of success controlling the risks and optimizing predictability.
What are the 5 events of Scrum?
2. Sprint Planning
3. Daily Scrum
4. Sprint Review
5. Sprint Retrospective
What is a sprint?
Sprint is the heart of Scrum. It is like a mini-project that contains the other four events.
What is Sprint Planning?
This is the first event of the sprint. A small amount of work is chosen and a plan of how to deliver that work is put together.
What is the Daily Scrum?
The daily scrum is a short and quick daily recurring event within the sprint in which the team members synchronize their progress with each other and confirm the next 24- hour plan.
What is a Sprint Review?
The one-time event within a Sprint in which the team makes the progress visible to the stakeholders. Both the team and stakeholders collaborate to adjust their next steps.
What is a Sprint Retrospective?
This is the final event of thee Sprint. This is an inspection and adaptation opportunity for the Scrum Team to inspect their way of working and identify potential improvements.
Scrum effectively limits the risk and unknowingly doing something wrong by:
a. Having a detailed and extensive risk management plan.
b. Having multiple checkpoints and thorough review by senior management at those checkpoints
c. Using short iterations called Sprints.
C. The risk of pursuing a wrong direction is limited to the cost of one Sprint.
Scrum was founded on _____________ that facilitates early feedback.
a. A framework to address complex adaptive problems.
b. Collection of industry best practices in information technology.
c. A body of knowledge on software engineering to build products.
A. Scrum is a framework based on empiricism process control theory used to address complex adaptive problems.
To reduce the likelihood of not meeting big commitments, Scrum uses:
a. Timeboxing, so the planned events can happen on time.
b. Timeboxing, so the commitments will have additional buffer of time.
c. Timeboxing, so the events cannot exceed a predetermined time box.
C. Timeboxing is used so that events cannot exceed a predetermined time box.
Select all that apply. The formal opportunities for Inspection and Adaptation are:
b. Definition of "Done"
c. Product Increment
d. None of the above
D. There are four scrum events that are formal events for inspection and adaptation. They are Sprint Planning, Daily Scrum, Review and Retrospective.
Scrum framework consists of:
a. Scrum Standards
b. Scrum Teams
c. Product Development Processes
d. Roles, Events, Artifacts, and rules associated with Scrum Teams.
B & D. Scrum framework consists of Scrum Teams and their associated roles, events, artifacts, and rules.
As per empiricism, knowledge is acquired by:
b. Analytical tools
c. Formal Teaching
A. Empiricism asserts that knowledge comes from experience in the past and the practice of making decisions based on what is known.
What are the roles in a Scrum Team? Select all that apply.
a. Project Manager
d. Business Analyst
f. Operations Analyst
g. None of the above
G. There are only three roles in the Scrum Team. Scrum Master, Developer, Product Owner
What are the three roles in a Scrum-Team?
Product Owner, Scrum Master, Developer
What is the number range of developers for a scrum team?
Minimum of 3 and max of 9.
What are the two rules of Scrum?
1. Reduce Management-communication and role overhead by being self-organized
2. Take full ownership by being cross-functional
In a traditional approach, _______ organizes and manages the team members work ________________ is their management style
Project Manager, Command and Control
In self-organized teams, the work is divided between individual team members. Each team member takes accountability for the progress of only their work.
False. In self-organized teams, the work is decomposed into work units.
In their journey to deliver products of the highest business value, what factors will enable the Scrum Team to balance creativity, flexibility, and productivity?
a. Strong Team Management and Guidance by a team member identified as their leader.
b. Having all the skills required to perform all their work without external help.
c. Performance Management System that rewards the super achievers of the team.
d. Structuring the team such that it can self-organize its work against a common goal.
B & D. Sufficient capabilities are ensured by having all the skills required for the job. Empowerment is ensured by the structure of self-organization.
As a self-organized team, what can it manage? Select all that apply.
a. Managing their work to reach a common goal.
b. Managing their human-related aspects like leave, firing one of the team members, office dress code, etc.
c. Managing some other teams
d. Managing to support ad-hoc high-priority requirements from important executives.
A. As a development self-organized team the only thing that they can manage is their work to a common goal.
What are two big differences between a traditional business manager and a product owner?
1. Continuous engagement with the team: A product owner continually works with the team to help them understand the product needs and get the best value out of their work.
2. Ultimate authority of the team's scope of work: Anyone who wants to add something to the product must go through the Product Owner
Select all that apply. In Scrum, the person playing the business role, the Product Owner:
a. Hands over the Product Backlog to the Development team and leaves the team alone. They only meet up again during the final product delivery.
b. Freezes the product backlog and tries not to change it.
c. Works only with designated people in the Development Team
d. Continuously collaborates with the development team, sometimes almost every day.
D. A Product Owner is in charge of keeping the team continuously informed on what to work on and what the product needs.
In scrum, Team Velocity is a good metric to track the progress of product development.
B. In scrum, the real mark of progress is the delivery of a useable product Increment in every sprint.
In scrum, the servant-leader of the self-organized team is the new name for the old Project Manager role.
B. In Scrum, the servant-leader is not a project manager or a people manager. Their role is to coach and teach their development team.
The Scrum Master is the manager of the Scrum Team.
B. There is no exclusive team manager role like a project manager.
Scrum uses 3 artifacts to track the information about the Product and the work. What are those three key artifacts?
1. The Increment
2. The Product Backlog
3. The Sprint Backlog
What is the purpose of the increment?
The Increment is the mark of the real progress, and it provides information for required stakeholders about the progress so far.
What is the purpose of the product backlog?
The Product Backlog is the product definition in terms of ordered product features. Using the ordered features, one can understand what the team will work on in the future.
What is the purpose of the Sprint Backlog?
The Sprint Backlog is a temporary artifact created for each Sprint.
What is a key different between a sprint backlog and a product backlog?
The product backlog is a continuously evolving artifact. However, the Sprint backlog is a temporary artifact.
Scrum is best described as a:
a. Software Methodology
b. Framework for developing and sustaining complex products
c. Product development process
d. Collection of best practices
B. Scrum is a framework within which appropriate processes and techniques can be employed to develop complex products.
Transparency, Inspection, and Adaptation are the three pillars of:
a. Empirical Process Control Theory
d. Six Sigma
A. Empirical Process Control Theory
Transparency in empiricism refers to:
a. Clear thinking and planning by each team member
b. The significant aspects of the product development process are defined by common standards and made visible, so the observers will share the understanding
c. The highest levels of morality
This is used by the Scrum Team to identify unfinished work in a Sprint
a. Coding standard
b. Definition of Ready
c. Testing Standard
d. Definition of Done
D. The definition of done provides the same shared understanding of what it means for work to be complete, which ensures transparency.
What are scrum values?
Scrum values are a set of fundamental qualities underpinning the Scrum framework.
Being proficient in these values will bring the Scrum Pillars (Transparency, Inspection, and Adaptation) to life. What are the 5 values of Scrum?
Commitment, Courage, Focus, Openness, and respect.
A Development Team member is requested by an important stakeholder to help them with an urgent and important task outside the Sprint Goal. The Team member sets aside the Sprint work for the day and instead helped with this request. Which statement best describes the Team member's action?
a. The team member has gone the extra mile and must be rewarded.
b. The team member has violated Scrum rules by not consulting with his manager.
c. The team member did not live by the Scrum value of focus.
Shortly into using Scrum for the first time in an organization, the Scrum Team runs into several impediments against following Scrum. The most common inference is:
a. Scrum should have been applied for Product Development instead of Software Development.
b. The team should have followed only the Scrum's guidance about how to perform software engineering practices like design, coding, testing, etc.
c. The Scrum Team didn't plan the product development projet completely in advance.
d. It is normal for first timers. Scrum will expose all weakness in the current ecosystem that need to be resolved.
D. The organizations should strive to address these weaknesses while maturing their team's ability to produce useable software within the Sprints.
Scrum is immutable
A. Changing Scrum or customizing it for the convenience of an existing culture may dilute its distinguishing identity as a "change agent". Also, it may be perceived as just another additional practice, which fails to motivate those who anticipate change.
The organization or senior management's support:
a. Is not needed for Scrum implementations
b. Is not needed because there is no scope for management in Scrum
c. Is needed to support the Product Owner to maximize the product value and the Scrum Master to coach and implement Scrum
c. Their action is needed to structure the self-organized teams.
A scrum team is at the end of a Sprint. The next Sprint starts:
a. Only after the Product Increment is released to production.
b. Only after the Retrospective event of the current Sprint
c. Only after the team for the next Sprint is on board
d. only after the Sprint Planning
B. The last event of the Sprint is the Retrospective.
Only the Product Owner can come up with items that can be considered for the Product Backlog. Others cannot provide input / recommendations / ideas about new items.
B. Although the Product Owner has the final say on the content and order of the product backlog, he/she may have input from any stakeholder or Scrum team member.
A Scrum Team needs to have the following roles. Select all that apply:
a. Product Manager
b. Business Manager
g. Scrum Master
h. Project Leader
I. Product Owner
D, G & I.
A scrum team must produce the following artifacts. Select all that apply:
a. Project Plan
b. Product Backlog
c. Design Document
d. Sprint Backlog
e. Test Case Specifications
f. Project Status Report
B, D, & G.