52 terms

Period 4 - WHAP

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Protestant Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Martin Luther
a German monk who wrote the 95 theses in 1517, which were 95 propositions that criticized the Catholic Church
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
English Civil War
This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished.
Astrolabe
An instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets
Divine Right
with God's blessing of the king's authority, the legitimacy of royalty across Europe was enhanced, and occurred under the reign of Louis XIV during the 17th and 18th centuries
Shakespeare
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
Prince Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.
Sikhism
started by Nanuk, who became the first Guru of Sikhism. Sikhism was a following of people who formed a community free of caste divisions
Johan Guttenberg
from Germany, and invented the printing press. Printed 200 bibles. Printing press significantly increased the level literacy in the 16th century. Few inventions have made such a significant effect.
Renaissance Artists
Michelangelo, Donatello, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael
Chinese Examination System
To maintain centralized control, rulers recruited and use bureaucratic elites and the development of military professionals. For example the Chinese used this system.
Mestizo
composed of European and Amerindian children, part of the castas
Creoles - composed of those born in the new world; a quickly growing class
Creole
American born descendants of Europeans
Contrast between the Northern and Italian Renaissance
The Northern Renaissance was the Renaissance that occurred in Europe north of the Alps. Before 1497, Italian Renaissance humanism had little influence outside Italy. From the late 15th century, its ideas spread around Europe.
British East India Company
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
Mehmet II and the Conquest of Constantinople
Ottoman ruler to claim the title of Caesar of the Roman Empire, made claim after conquest of Constantinople in 1453
Suleiman the Magnificent
The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire (r. 1520-1566); also known as Suleiman Kanuni, 'The Lawgiver.' He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean. (p. 526)
Francis Xavier and Matteo Ricci
tried to spread Catholicism in China and Japan but their attempts were repressed by the government who feared spread of the religion would cause European culture
Kangxi
Chinese Qing emperor (r. 1661-1722) who promoted Confucian ideas and policies and expanded the Qing empire (Captured Taiwan, Mongolia, and parts of Central Asia- Tibet)
Tokugawa Shogunate
(1603-1867) Feudal Warlord rulers of Japan. Responisble for closing Japan off from the rest of the world. Overthrown during the Meiji Restoration.
The Delhi Sultanate
an empire that that was a mixture of Mongol and Turkish peoples from Central Asia, which dominated India until the early 1700s, the grandson of Babur, who brought the height of the Mughal empire, Also expanded his empire to control much of the subcontinent.
Mughal Empire and Akbar
Akbar was one of the greatest emperors of the Mughal dynasty. It was during the reign of Akbar that the rule of the Mughals truly began, for both Babur and Humayun had ruled for extremely short and interrupted periods. Akbar was a minor at the time of his father's death, and was under the guardianship of Bairam Khan. Soon after succeeding to the throne
Mercantilism and Capitalism
a system in which the government is constantly intervened in the market, with the understanding the goal of economic gain and to benefit the mother country, an economic system based on private ownership of property and business
Iberian Explorations of the new world
Conquistadors who were looking for gold, silver, fountain of youth, and the NW Passage.
Songhai and Timbuktu
The Songhai Empire ( Songhay) was a state that dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century. At its peak, it was one of the largest states in African history. Timbuktu was an important city in the empire. It was conquered in 1468, and urban-centered trade flourished.
Impact of population growth and the agricultural revolution
The most obvious impact was, the growth in size of towns and cities like London. The growth in the population in those towns depended on the jobs available. Due to this increase, new talented individuals with ideas in science and technology were born, and then this led individuals who put money forward to invest in new factories/facilities. e.g cotton mills.
Triangular trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
Encomienda system
It gave settlers the right to tax local Native Americans or to make them work. In exchange, these settlers were supposed to protect the Native American people and convert them to Christianity
Aurangzeb
Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death
The Enlightenment
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
Thirty year and the peace of westphalia
On October 24th 1648, the Treaty of Westphalia was signed, marking the end of the Thirty Years' War.
Portuguese exploration of Africa and India
The explorations of Atlantic islands for fish, seals, whales, timber, and lands to plant wheat. The start of the sugar plantations in the Atlantic.
Safavid Empire
Iranian kingdom (1502-1722) established by Ismail Safavi, who declared Iran a Shi'ite state.
Janissaries
Christian boys taken from families, converted to Islam, and then rigorously trained to serve the sultan
Rise of the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty
Overtaking of the Ming, Forced the Ming to cut their hair and made footbinding illegal and banned inter marriage. Manchi Queue Decree created in 1644
Treaty of Tordesillas
A 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
"Floating world" (Japan)
(ukiyo) was an expression of the new economy and social ambitions of the common townspeople of the Edo period (1615-1868). It was, specifically, a world of play and entertainment in Japan's three main cities (Edo [now called Tokyo], Osaka, and Kyoto).
Columbian Exchange
An exchange of goods, ideas and skills from the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) to the New World (North and South America) and vice versa.
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.
Describe the Galleon trade between Manila and Acapulco
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What types of coerced labor systems result from European exploration?
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How did the Ottomans treat non-Muslim subjects?
The Ottomans treated non-Muslim subjects with respect. They were vary tolerant for people living in their empire.
Why was silver and gold critical to revitalizing 16th century world trade?
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What was the impact of the Portuguese in the political affairs of India and Japan
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Agree or disagree and why? - Challenges by Luther and Calvin strengthened the Catholic Church, both dogmatically and evangelically?
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How did the African slave trade reshape African societies and policies?
the slave trade created wealth around the coast, but depopulated the inner parts of Africa.
How did the political structure of the Qing Dynasty in China, the Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan and the Ottoman Empire ensure its success in the 16th to 18th century
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Did the role of women change in the 16th thru the 18th century?
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Were the religious wars of Europe as result of theological clashes or were there others factors at play?
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Why wasn't there "Enlightenment" in the Middle East and Asia?
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Who were the "winners" and in the development of cross-cultural trade and interaction? "losers"
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