ENGLISH LANGUAGE AQA A LEVEL: GENDER
Terms in this set (17)
Robin Lakoff - 1975
Women's spoken language is perceived as weak or deficient compared to men's
Women use tag questions as a sign of their insecurity and hesitancy
Text by Lakoff
'Language and Women's Place'
Evaluation of Deficit Model
No support of empirical research, based on anecdotes.
O'Barr and Atkins (1980) - powerlessness is linked to social status, not gender
Pamela Fishman - 1983
Men's talk is competitive, women's is co-operative
Text by Fishman
'Interaction: the Work Women Do'
Reasons why men dominate conversations, according to Dale Spender...
Women find it hard to challenge the power system due to the way the world is viewed. Women are conditioned to accept male dominance - patriarchal society
How Fishman interpreted tag questions differently to Lakoff...
tag questions are used to gain conversational power rather than for lack of conversational awareness. Men only respond minimally to a declarative statement, if at all.
Zimmerman and West (1983)
Men more dominant is mixed sex conversations - men interrupted 96% of the time and 62% of females silences came after a male had interrupted, overlapped or used a delayed minimal response
Geoffrey Beattie (1982 article in New Scientist) disagreed and stated...
that the majority of interruptions were supportive, showing they were listening
Deborah Tannen - 1990
Men and women belong to different 'subcultures' and see different purposes in interactions
Struggle to communicate due to biological differences
Text by Tannen
'You Just Don't Understand'
Evaluation of Difference Model
Oversimplifies gender differences - states there is such thing as gender polarisation and dichotomies. Assumes genders are homogenous - there are differences within the genders
Six Contrasts according to Tannen: Report vs Rapport
Status vs Support
Independence vs Intimacy
Advice vs Understanding
Information vs Feelings
Orders vs Proposals
Conflict vs Compromise
Deborah Cameron - 2008
There are more differences in speech within the genders than between genders
Language is performative - we all have a linguistic repertoire to draw upon
We conform to what is expected of us.
Gender as a 'performance' - i.e. it is pre-constructed
Text by Cameron
'The Myth of Mars and Venus'
has been a shift from relative clarity and fixity to relative complexity and fluidity - gender is no longer seen as given but rather as something we 'do', the emphasis is on diversity and on plural masculinities and femininities rather than on a simple binary divide between 'men' and 'women'
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