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Fund. Conc. of Electricity
Terms in this set (65)
Atoms with a deficiency of electrons are called ________ and are referred to as being ________.
Atoms with an excess of electrons are called _______ and are referred to as being _________.
an Anode has what polarity?
a Cathode has what polarity?
positive to negative
in which direction does current flow?
material where charged particles move when placed in an electric field. I.E. muscle, nerve, tendon
material in which charges are not free to move around. I.E. skin, adipose tissue.
In biological tissues, a higher level of _________ leads to better conduction.
Gels, alcohol pads and hot packs are used on the skin before electric stim in order to do what?
electrical potential difference between two points in an electrical field or the force that makes charged particles move.
referred to as the electromotive force (EMF) or potential difference.
amount of charge moving past a plane in the conductor per unit time.
what is current measured in?
What defines physiological response during electric stimulation?
According to Ohm's law, current (I) is equal to?
Resistance is measured in what?
In order to maintain current flow in a constant current unit, what is forced to change if the resistance changes?
In order to maintain voltage in a constant voltage unit, which is forced to change if the resistance changes?
A constant current unit is used primarily for what?
A constant voltage unit is used primarily for what?
Which type of unit is able to maintain the physiological response, but result in more pain for the patient?
Which type of unit does not become uncomfortable, but may lose the desired physiological response?
What type of current flows in on direction only?
What type of current flows in both positive and negative directions?
Which type of current is used with ionto treatment and with un-innervated muscle?
Which type of current can result in chemical changes occurring under the pad?
What can form under the negative electrode in a direct current?
What can form under the positive electrode in a direct current?
Which type of current is used for pain relief and muscle contraction?
For which type of current does each electrode become positive for one phase of the cycle, and then negative for the next phase?
Which type of current has a uni or bi-directional flow, that periodically ceases for a finite period of time?
one electrical event separated by a finite period of time when current does not flow.
elapsed time between successive pulses
shape of the visual representation of pulsed current on a current or voltage time plot
current flow in one direction for a finite period of time
for which type of phase does the pulse deviate in one direction only from the baseline and return to the baseline after a finite period of time?
for which type of phase does the pulse deviate in one direction from the baseline, and then deviates in the opposite direction?
type of biphasic pulsatile current which looks like a mirror image
type of biphasic pulsatile current that is not symmetrical, but phase charges under the curve is equal.
type of phase that has more than three phases, such as burst modulated A/C.
Symmetrical waveforms and balanced asymmetrical waveforms have equal positive and negative charges, giving them a net charge of what?
elapsed time between the beginning and the end of a phase
elapsed time between the beginning and end of all phases in a single pulse
intrapulse interval/interphase interval
elapsed time between two successive phases of a pulse
elapsed time between successive pulses
number of pulses per second for pulsed current.
Frequency for A/C is expressed as what?
time for the leading edge of the phase to increase from baseline to peak amplitude
time of the trailing edge of the phase to return to the baseline from the peak amplitude.
unit of measure of magnitude of current with reference to baseline
maximum current value reached in a monophasic pulse for any single phase of a biphasic or polyphasic pulse
charge within each phase or area under the curve. Determines the physiological charge
the sum of the charge of the component phases, used to measure current delivered.
amplitude or time characteristics that are varied in a prescribed fashion
a continuous repetitive sequence of pulses or cycles of alternating current
an interrupted train, a finite series of pulses delivered at an identified frequency or duration
ratio of on time to total time, generally expressed as a percentage
Duty cycles are generally seen in what therapeutic modality?
interpulse interval is generally measured in what unit of time?
a burst is generally measured in what unit of time?
on/off time is generally measured in what unit of time?
What determines the type of contraction (twitch vs. titanic)?
What type of component does current flow in only one direction?
What type of component is current provided with alternate paths and takes the path of least resistance?
How long must current flow be present in order to elicit physiochemical effects such as acid/base formation on the surface of the skin?
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