AP Renaissance Europe

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Brunelleschi, Filippo
(1377 - April 15, 1446) was one of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance. He is perhaps most famous for his studies of linear perspective and engineering the dome of the Florence Cathedral.
Castiglione, Baldassare
In 1528, he published The Book of the Courtier, which many consider to be the most influential work on education of the Renaissance. The idea of the "Renaissance Man" was described by him to be virtuous, refined, and a student of the liberal arts - perfectly well suited to artistic, written and spiritual pursuits.
city-states
these trade rich cities of Italy in the 13th and 14th century expanded to become powerful city-states that dominated the political and economic life of the surrounding countryside.Lacked a central control and became independent states. By the 15th century, five states-Milan, Florence, Venice, the Papal States, and the Kingdom of Naples overshadowed the other smaller states and were in fierce competition with one another for economic and political power.
the Courtier
(1528), by Castiglione, it described the ideal courtier, or attendant at a court, as someone who had mastered the classics and several languages, and who could paint, sing, write poetry, advise and console his prince, as well as run, jump, swim, and wrestle.
David
18 foot sculpture by Michelangelo that stood for many years in the great square of Florence, and it has been one of the most popular sculptures in the world.
Erasmus, Desiderius
Dutch scholar. Began writing career with dialogues that he prepared for his students. These dialogues were intended to teach them how to speak and live well, and to exhibit good manners worthy of the gentlemen he wanted them to become. Wrote in Praise of Folly. Was a Catholic but his works were placed on the Index of Forbidden Books.
Ferdinand and Isabella
A king and queen of Spain in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. They united their country and sponsored the exploration of the New World by Christopher Columbus. Reduced the power of the great nobles when they filled the political bureaucracy including the royal council-with hidalgos, lesser aristocrats who owed their positions to the throne.
Gutenberg, Johann
German goldsmith and printer of Mainz, Germany. Developed movable type (although it had been invented in China and Korea) his printing press printed the bible.
Humanism
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.Most new works by Petrarch and Boccaccio were written in the vernacular and expressed the accomplishments of the individual.
Inquisition
tribunal originally set up to monitor the sincerity of former Muslims and Jews who had converted (often by force) to Christianity.
Italian Renaissance
..., A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture. From roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century followed by this movement spreading into the Northern Europe during 1400-1600
Machiavelli, Niccolo
(1469-1527) Author of The Prince(16th century): emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power; one of the most influential authors of the Italian Renaissance
Medici, Cosimo de'
Head of Medici family-supported by a few patrician families who helped to banish prominent members of the most powerful rival clans.
Medici Family
A wealthy merchant family that ruled over Florence as uncrowned rulers. Great patrons of the arts. Includes Cosimo and Lorenzo.
Medici, Lorenzo de'
Politician and promoted the family's power with his extravagant patronage of the arts
Mona Lisa
A painting by Leonardo da Vinci of a woman with a mysterious smile. It is now of the most readily recognized paintings in the world. Reflects the humanist interest in individual facial expressions and in painting realistic landscapes as backgrounds
More, Thomas
..., the author of "Utopia", believed that society, not people, needed improving. Was a minister of King Henry VIII, but because he had conflicting views he was executed.
"new monarchs"
The term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who strengthened their monarchical authority often by Machiavellian means.Emphasized royal majesty and authority over their subjects, and they suppressed opposition and rebellion. Still continued some middle age practices.
oligarchies
rule of merchant aristocracies, controlled much of Italy by 1300
Papal States
ruled by the pope and formed another important power during Renaissance Italy
patriarchs , patriarchies
Male heads of the family in 15th century Italy. Patriarchies are societies dominated by men
Petrarch
(1304- 1374) He was the first great humanist thinker and a scholar of Latin. He used writing to consider the ebb and flow of his life and the human condition itself. He is known as the "Father of Humanism". Instrumental in standardizing the Florentine vernacular. Admired Cicero and valued St. Augustine. Also famous for his Italian verse, short sonnets.
The Prince
A short political treatise about political power how the ruler should gain, maintain, and increase it. Machiavelli explores the problems of human nature and concludes that human beings are selfish and out to advance their own interests. He believed it was better to be feared than loved.
Raphael
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens. famous for his madonnas. Died young
Reconquista
Beginning in the eleventh century, military campaigns by various Iberian Christian states to recapture territory taken by Muslims. In 1492 the last Muslim ruler was defeated, and Spain and Portugal emerged as united kingdoms.
republics
in Italy during the Renaissance Italian states were divided into two categories. these were base on the old medieval communes. or associations with free men who sought complete political and economic independence from local nobles
The School of Athens
Raphael - Italian Renaissance fresco wall painting of Greek philosophers drawn to scale in accordance with the vantage point of the viewer. The placement, in the center of the archway, of Plato and Aristotle emphasizes the importance of these two central figures. Raphael shows his style of basic one-point perspective converging in a single vanishing point just behind Plato and Aristotle. The exception is the cube in the foreground which gives a two-point perspective. It easy to see, that with the removal of the figures, the building is symmetrically balanced.
secularism
An indifference to religion and a belief that religion should be excluded from civic affairs and public education
Tudors
The House of Lancaster and the House of York feuded over the throne for more than twenty years, until finally a compromis was reached when a new royal house-------emerged in 1485 by intermarriage between two warring families. Henry VII, the first of this dynasty. This dynasty would dominate England throughout the 16th century
Utopia
A work that presents a revolutionary view of society and describes an ideal socialistic community on an island somewhere off the mainland of the New World. He created the name utopia as a good place which is no place. Book by Thomas More
Van Eyck, Jan
An important painter of the Northern Renaissance. He is credited with the first use of the oil glazing technique of painting. He is also known for the great detail in his work. His most famous work was the Arnolfini Wedding.
Vasari, Giorgio
an Italian painter and architect, who is today famous for his biographies of Italian artists, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.
Vernacular
Everyday language of ordinary people.
Vinci, Leonardo da
"Renaissance Man"- great artist, engineer, scientist, and inventor. He created the Mona Lisa.

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