What did Paul Ekman study and what did he infer from his research?
He studied untouched tribes and found that universal non verbal behaviors exist
Paul Ekman, Repeating
duplicating the verbal message with a nonverbal message
Paul Ekman, Conflicting
nonverbal messages reveal how we really feel by contradicting verbal messages
Paul Ekman, Complementing
elaborating on the verbal message
Paul Ekman, Substituing
Using an emblem to convey a message
Paul Ekman, accenting and moderating
amplifying and toning down verbal messages. Use Nonverbal communication to make the verbal statement really hard or mellow.
Paul Ekman, Regulating
(on our own punctuation marks) things we do to punctuate the things we say. Can organize information for others. It involves turn-taking when speaking.
Ways for improving your own Nonverbal Communication
1) Learn to be a competent observer of your environment 2) observe in context to understand 3) learn to recognize common nonverbal behaviors 4) Learn to recognize idiosyncratic Nonverbal behaviors (behaviors unique to that one person) 5) Watch for a clusters of multiple tells
Nonverbal communication is ________-bound
What is meant by nonverbal communication is culture-bound?
Each culture has its own unique set of rules
Nonverbal communication is ________ governed
(burgoon) Expectancy violations model suggests that?
-we expect certain behaviors based on our own background
- we judge others on whether they violate a rule or not
Nonverbal communication is ambiguous, Perception checking can be?
direct or indirect
What research did Guilloume - Benjamin duchenne de Boulogne do?
He found a man that suffered from facial insensitivity and used electrodes so that he could make particular muscles react to produces expressions long enough to symbolize emotions
Darwin believed that expressions of emotion is nature over nurture. What did he find as evidence to promote this belief?
-that there are universal expressions of emotions across cultures -found that his child make expressions of emotions before he could be exposed to them in the real world
Paul Ekman advocated Darwin's finding, what information did he obtain that drew him to these findings?
- he went to new guinea and studied untouched tribes -found these tribe members could identify the expressions used by people in pictures.
What caused Paul Ekman to go on his search to look for universal expressions of emotion?
A patient of his who was going to commit suicide convinced them that she was fine and was not going to commit suicide
Marget Mead's main argument for nurture over nature is her belief that?
we are all equal when born and people are nurtured into their environment.
Bio Evolutionary Paradign, Theory of Natural Selection(TNS)
there are a few selective traits that make things survive better in their respective environments
Bio Evolutionary Paradign, Which traits?
depends on the specific survival challenge
Which traits might advantage people over others?
Intelligence, attractiveness, money
Bio Evolutionary Paradign, By having the selective traits that make you survive enables you to?
Thrive, survive, and procreate
Evolutionary theorists argue that _______ traits appear with greater frequency
Darwin believe in _______ & ________
continuity and universality
Darwin observed what, when, and why __________occurred
Darwin was the first to demonstrate
universality of expressions, and their continuity in man and animals
Who were Marian and Vivian Brown?
They were two identical twins that always did the same thing (they were iconic)
3 sources of nonverbal behavior?
Who started behaviorism?
Behaviorism (John Watson)
new approach to psychology rejected the subjective (wanted to make measurable experiments to study behavior)
Behaviorism used scientific measures which were?
observable and measurable
Ekman and friesen 3 sources of nonverbal behaviors
Learned, Genetic, mixed between the two
Nonverbal research, Genetic
inherited neurological program
Gentic research was done with?
- people with sensory deprivation -infants -twins -primates
Genetics study, evidence with those with sensory deprivation,
spontaneous expressions of emotions are not significantly different from those with sighted and hearing
Genetics study evidence from neonates(infants after birth)
-disagreement exists with whether babies are born with emotional predisposition because when they are born they immediately encounter people
Genetics study, evidence from identical twins studies
50% or more of similarities are due to genetics
Genetics study, evidence from identical twin studies: list the similarities between twins found 50% of the time
Genetics Study, Evidence from primates: Similarities
-caring for children, group behavior, maintaining relationships, and expressing emotions -Primates and Humans have similar anger expressions
Genetics study, Evidence from primates: Differences
-Humans have referential gestures while primates have almost none -Humans have more facial blends of emotion (i.e. scared and afraid) While primates have a singular expression in the face
Sir Francis Galton did which study first?
He did the first twin study
Sir Francis Galton coined which phrase?
Nature vs Nurture
What did Skir Francis Galton believe?
That you could bread a better of everything, even humans
After viewing the idea that all behaviors are learned and that all are genetic, what have scientists determined?
That it is somewhere in the middle between the two
Nonverbal immediacy (Albert Merivian UCLA)
behavior people use to show someone they are trying to be closer to them
According to Nonverbal immediacy by (Albert Merivian UCLA), Perceived Distance is?
could be physical or psychological
(Mehrabian, 1971) People are drawn towards persons they?
like, evaluate highly, and prefer
(Mehrabian, 1971) People avoid or move away from?
things they dislike, evaluate negatively, or do not prefer.
(Tahnual) we don't see things as they are, we see them as?
What did Chabris and simmons (1999) study on perception reveal?
-half of people did not see the gorilla and only focused on the main thing they are supposed to be looking at -and in a nationwide study, 75% of people said they would have noticed such unexpected events
not seeing something because you weren't attending to it
we often miss huge changes when we are not paying attention
Receiver's accuracy of decoding gender (Marian Legato)
females are more accurate when decoding nonverbal cues from grade school (particularly facial cues)
Receiver's accuracy on decoding, what aspects of nonverbal?
Face, Posture, Gesture, and voice
Receiver's accuracy on decoding, Research is on recognizing?
The social identity groups people belong to
Receiver's accuracy on decoding, Decoding ability is pretty accurate with?
-gay and lesbian observers -college student observers of gay and straight men even for as little as .20 of a second
Receiver's accuracy on decoding Research on judging our own skills shows that?
-people tend to have "tacit knowledge"
people having tacit knowledge of nonverbal means?
people process nonverbal cues, largely, unconsciously without much awareness of which cues they rely on
Receiver's accuracy on decoding concerning cognitive ability
small positive correlation between general cognitive ability and nonverbal ability
Research concerning Time Exposure refers to?
How long do you need to be exposed to nonverbal behavior to be good at it
Robert Rosenthal's PONS (Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity) found what in relation to time exposure?
-1/24th second > 3/24th second > 2 seconds(did not increase) -time 2 seconds > 5 minutes did not
Robert Rosenthal's PONS (Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity) found what in relation to moods?
-positive and negative accuracy affect accuracy -generally sad modes reduce accuracy
Both Accuracy of EN/DE coding, what could John Gottmann identify about a married couple within 15 minutes?
If they were going to get divorced, if one of them expresses contempt towards the other than they are more than likely going to get divorced
Both Accuracy of EN/DE coding (Marriage, John Gottman), Who is better at encoding women or men?
Both Accuracy of EN/DE coding (Marriage, John Gottman), men in happier marriages sent
Clearer facial expressions
Both Accuracy of EN/DE coding (Marriage, John Gottman), Research in men of low marital happiness are more accurate in decoding nonverbal communication of?
unknown married women than their own spouse
How does cognitive load affect decoding and encoding and why?
-social anxiety reduces encoding and decoding -processing capacity is reduced due to self focus
Edward T Hall specialized in?
Edward T Hall came up with the ___________ effect
Ice Burg effect
Edward T Hall iceberg effect say
that there are all these sets of emotions underneath the "tip" of the iceburg
Jon Watson behaviorism says a persons behavior is determined by?
giving more importance to nonverbal communication than verbal cues
Akman theorized _______ gestures real what people really think.