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NASM

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What is the inner most layer of muscle?
Endomysium
How much water is recommended per day?
96 ounces, 3 quarts or 8-12 cups
How many calories are in 1 gram of protein/carbohydrate/fat?
4/4/9
A person who's pants are higher in the back than in the front displays?
Anterior Pelvic tilt
When taking the pulse the diastolic pulse is heard when?
It begins to fade.
Which of the following is a Reactive-Strength exercise?
tuck jump
What % of communication is physiological, tone, and words that are actually spoken?
55%, 38%, 7%
Davies Test:
Clients with weak shoulders (or with shoulder injuries) can't complete.
Upper Extremity Strength Assessment:
10lb.-20lb. increase in weight (or 5%-10% body weight)
Lower Extremity Strength Assessment:
30lb.-40lb. increase in weight (or 10%-20% body weight).
obesity
BMI 30 or greater. or 30 lbs overweight for their height
overweight
BMI 25-29.9, 25-30 lbs over weight
diabetes mellitus
caused by insulin deficiency, which impairs carb usage and enhances usage of fats and proteins
proprioceptively enriched environment
unstable yet controllable physical situation in which exercises are performed that causes the body to use its internal balance and stabilization mechanisms
OPT
Stabilization - Stabilization endurance
Strength - strength endurance, hypertrophy, max strength
Power - power training
phase 1: stabilization endurance training
endurance, stability, flexibility, posture
low loads, high reps, unstable environments
phase 2: strength endurance
stabilization endurance and inc prime mover strength
moderate loads and reps (8-12)
SS: one normal w/ one stabilization exercise
phase 3: hypertrophy
inc muscle size
high volume, mod-high loads, mod-low reps (6-12)
phase 4: max strength
inc motor unit recruitment, improve peak force
high loads, low reps (1-5), longer rest
rate of force production
ability of muscles to exert max force output in a minimal amount of time
phase 5: power
enhance neuromuscular efficiency, enhance prime mover strength, inc rate of force production
SS: one strength w/ one power exercise. perform all power exercises as fast as can be controlled.
human movement system
combination and interrelation of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems
sensory function
ability of nervous system to sense changes in either the internal or external environment
neuron
functional unit of nervous system
sensory (afferent) neurons
transmit nerve impulses from effector sites to brain and spinal cord
motor (efferent) neurons
effector
transmit nerve impulses from brain/spinal cord to effector sites
CNS
brain and spinal cord
PNS
cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body
mechanoreceptors
sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues
muscle spindle
receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change. stretch reflex/contract. prevent over-stretching.
golgi tendon
sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of change. cause muscle to relax
axial skeleton
consists of skull, rib cage, vertebral column
appendicular skeleton
upper and lower extremities. limbs/girdles
Bones
long - humerus, femur
short - carpals, tarsals
flat - scapulae, patella
irregular - vertebrae
sesamoid - patella
layers of muscle
endomysium, perimysium, epimysium
Neural activation
the contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation
Motor unit
A motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates
Neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers that cross the neuromuscular junction to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle
Cardiorespiratory system
composed of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems
Cardiovascular system
heart, blood, and blood vessels
Mediastinum
space in the chest between the lungs that contains all the internal organs of the chest except the lungs
Sinoatrial (SA) node
located in right atrium of the heart, initiates electrical impulses that determine heart rate, pacemaker
AV node
receives heartbeat impulses from SA node and directs them to walls of ventricles
Atrium
superior chamber of heart that receives blood from veins and forces it into ventricles
Ventricle
inferior chamber of heart that receives blood from atrium and forces blood into arteries
Cardiac output
volume of blood pumped by heart per minute. HR x SV, overall performance of heart
Blood transportation:
-transports O2 and nutrients to tissues
-transports waste products from tissues
-transports hormones to organs and tissues
-carries heat throughout body
Blood regulation:
regulates body temp and acid balance in body
Blood protection:
-protects from excessive bleeding by clotting
-contains immune cells to help fight disease/sickness
Arteries
transport blood away from the heart
Capillaries
site of exchange of water and chemicals btwn blood and tissues
Veins
carry blood from capillaries back to the heart
Chest press:
Agonist: pec major
Synergist: anterior deltoid, triceps
Stabilizer: rotator cuff
Antagonist: posterior deltoid
Overhead press:
Agonist: deltoid
Synergist: triceps
Stabilizer: rotator cuff
Antagonist: lats
Row
Agonist: lats
Synergist: posterior deltoid, biceps
Stabilizer: rotator cuff
Antagonist: pec major
Squat
Agonist: glute max, quads
Synergist: hamstring complex
Stabilizer: tranversus abdominis
Antagonist: psoas
Inhalation
contracting inspiratory muscles, intrapulmonary pressure decreases below atmospheric pressure, intrathoracic pressure decreases so right atrium pressure dec and helps blood flow back to heart
Fick equation
VO2 (oxygen consumption) = (cardiac output) Q x av O2 difference
Max oxygen consumption (vo2 max)
highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at max physical exertion. 11-23 METS.
RQ
0.7 is 100% fats. 1.0 is 100% carbs
Ipsilateral
positioned on the same side of the body
Sagittal plane
flexion/extension
Coronal axis
Frontal plane
adduction/abduction, lateral flexion, eversion/inversion
Anterior-posterior Axis
Transverse plane
internal/external rotation, horizontal adduction/abduction
Longitudinal axis
Eccentric
moving in the same direction as the resistance
decelerates or reduces force
Isotonic
force is produced, muscle tension is developed, and movement occurs through a given range of motion
Concentric
moving in opposite direction of force
accelerates or produces force
Isokinetic muscle action
muscle shortens at constant speed over full range of motion
Length-tension relationship
resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length
Force-couple upper traps and lower portion of serratus anterior
upward rotation of the scapula
force-couple glute max, quads and calf muscles
produce hip and knee extension for walking, running, stairs
Internal Feedback
sensory info is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment
External Feedback
provided by external source. ex) PT, mirror, videotape, HR monitor
Knowledge of results
Knowledge of performance
fitness assessment subjective info

objective info
general and medical history - career info, lifestyle

physiologic, body comp tests, cardio assessments, postural assessments, performance assessments
moderate risk
no S/S but have >2 cardiovascular disease risk factors
High risk
one or more S/S of cardiovascular, pulmonary, or metabolic disease
Skinfolds
Bicep, tricep, subscapular, iliac crest. right side of the body. 2 measurements at ea site.
Waist-to-Hip Ratio
waist/hip. >0.80=risk for women. >0/.95= men
BMI
kg/m^2
lbs/in^2 x 703
doesn't differentiate fat mass from lbm
Pronation distortion syndrome
postural distortion syndrome. foot pronation (flat feet) and adducted and internally rotated knees (knock knees)
Lower crossed syndrome
postural distortion syndrome. anterior tilt to the pelvis (arched lower back)
Upper crossed syndrome
postural distortion syndrome. forward head and rounded shoulders.
Overhead squat
checkpoints: LPHC, upper body, feet, knees
Pushing assessment compensations
LPH complex: low back arches
shoulder complex: shoulders elevate
head: head migrates forward
Davies test
measure upper extremity agility and stabilization
push-up position, tape 36 in apart, do alternating touches. 3 trials of 15 sec.
Shark skill test
lower extremity agility and neuromuscular control. hop into boxes on one leg.
Dynamic range of motion
the combination of flexibility and the nervous system's ability to control this range of motion efficiently
Relative flexibility
the tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns