90 terms

Culinary Arts Final Vocab

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cuisine
The French word for "kitchen". In the English language, it means style of cooking.
culinarian
A term for a cook or someone who prepares food.
culinary
Refers to matters related to the preparation or cooking of food.
foodservice
The business of making and serving prepared food and drink.
home meal replacement
Meals that are consumed at home but professionally prepared elsewhere.
hospitality
Welcoming guests and satisfying their needs.
living wage
Rate of pay that allows someone working full-time to support his or her family above the poverty level.
sustainable products and practices
Products and practices that can be produced or carried out over a long period of time without a negative effect on the environment.
trends
New practices or conditions that point to the way things will be in the future.
catering
Providing food and service for groups.
chain restaurants
A group of restaurants owned by the same company.
franchise restaurant
An independently owned restaurant that is part of a larger restaurant chain.
full-service restaurant
A restaurant that employs servers to take the customers' orders and bring the meals to their tables.
noncommercial foodservice
An operation that provides foodservice as a secondary activity for the business in which it is found.
commercial foodservice
Businesses with the primary goal of preparing and selling food to make money.
authority
To have control over.
corporation
Business that is granted a charter from the state, which recognizes it as a separate entity with legal rights.
entrepreneur
Someone who organizes a business and assumes the risk for it.
free enterprise
A person's right to own a business and manage it with little intervention by the government.
lucrative
Something that is wealth-producing.
sole proprietorship
Business in which one person owns and often operates the business.
partnership
Business in which ownership is shared by two or more people.
baker
Makes breads and may also make breakfast pastries.
butcher
Cuts and trims meats and poultry for other stations in the kitchen.
chef de partie
The title is used for someone who is in charge of a particular workstation in the kitchen.
communard
Is responsible for preparing meals for the staff in large operations.
entremetier
Oversees the preparation and cooking of vegetables, starches, egg dishes, and hot appetizers.
expeditor
Reads the servers' food orders to the cooks and organizes the finished dishes so servers can deliver them promptly.
garde manger
Is in charge of the cold food station. Makes salads, dressing, fruit plates, and other cold preparations.
pastry chef
The head of the baking and pastry department who oversees the work of specialists in that station.
poissonier
Prepares all fish and shellfish items.
potager
Makes all stocks, soups, and mother sauces.
saucier
Is responsible for making sauces.
tournant
Also called the swing chef or roundsman, this position fills in for other staff members on their days off.
chef de cuisine
supervises all the positions in the kitchen, and is responsible for the quality of the food and the safety of the guests and cooks.
chef de garde
The night chef who is in charge of the kitchen after the chef has left for the evening.
commis
Assistants to various departments.
decorator
Decorates cakes and pastries and makes chocolate carvings or sugar sculptures for pastry displays.
fry cook
prepares and cooks deep-fried items.
grill cook
Cooks all grilled and broiled meats, poultry, and fish.
legumier
prepares and cooks vegetables.
pastry cook
prepares primarily sweets and pastries
rotisseur
in charge of roasting meats and poultry and preparing pan sauces or gravies.
sous chef
The second in command who assumes the authority and responsibility of the chef when the chef is absent.
active listening
a technique that signals to the speaker that what he or she is saying is understood.
American Culinary Federation (ACF)
The largest professional organization for culinarians in the United States.
apprenticeship
A method of training in which a person learns a trade under the guidance of skilled tradespeople.
attitude
How you think and feel about other people and situations.
certification
Confirmation that a culinarian possesses certain knowledge, skill level, and experience.
conflict
A disagreement with a coworker.
diversity
Composed of or including different elements.
professionalism
The positive behaviors and appearance exhibited by an individual who is committed to a career in the culinary arts.
registered dietitian (RD)
Nutrition professionals who have completed at minimum a bachelor's degree in dietetics, an internship, and passed a national exam.
resource
The supplies, money, or staff that a company needs to do business.
stress
A physical, mental, and emotional response to external pressures.
aerobic bacteria
bacteria that require oxygen.
allergen
A protein that the body interprets as a dangerous substance.
anaerobic bacteria
Bacteria that thrive without oxygen.
bacteria
Single-celled organisms that reproduce by dividing.
biological hazard
Harmful organisms that cause foodborne illness
contamination
The presence of unsafe substances or levels of dangerous microorganisms in food.
cross-contact
When an allergen is transferred from its food of origin to a food that does not contain the allergen.
foodborne illness
Sickness caused by eating unsafe food.
parasite
An organism that lives in and feeds on the body of another live creature.
pH
The measure of acidity or alkalinity of a substance.
sanitation
The creation and practice of clean and healthy food-handling habits.
water activity (aw)
The amount of water available for microbial growth in a product.
yeast
A microscopic fungus that consumes sugar and expels alcohol and carbon dioxide gas.
chemical hazard
Any chemical that contaminates food.
material safety data sheets (MSDS)
lists the composition of chemical product, proper procedures for storage and handling, and what to do in case of an emergency.
potentially hazardous food
Any foods that require time and temperature control for safety (TCS) to limit the growth of pathogens or the formation of dangerous by-products.
intoxication
Illness resulting from ingestion of toxins left behind by bacteria that are poisonous substances harmful to humans.
temperature danger zone
Temperature range [41 degrees F-135 degrees F (5 degrees C-57 degrees C)] in which bacteria reproduce rapidly.
virus
a very small organism that invades another cell and causes it to reproduce the organism.
physical hazard
solid materials that pose a danger to the consumer when present in food.
spore
a thick-walled, "supersurvival unit."
facultative bacteria
Bacteria that can grow either with or without oxygen
infection
illness resulting from live bacteria.
pathogen
an organism that causes illness in humans.
mold
the name for a large family of single-cell fungi.
toxin mediated infection
an infection that occurs when bacteria are ingested and then produce harmful toxins while in the human digestive tract.
leach
how chemicals seep into food and contaminate it.
clean
describes a condition of being free of dirt, grease, or grime.
critical control point (CCP)
A step in food handling at which control can be applied to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard.
cross-contamination
What occurs when harmful microorganisms are transferred from one product to another by physical contact.
food-contact surface
Any surface such as a table, cutting board, or piece of equipment that comes in contact with food.
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
A system that identifies and manages key steps in food handling where contamination is most likely to occur.
sanitary
an environment free from pathogens.
three-compartment sink
three adjacent sinks used to clean, rinse, and sanitize small equipment and utensils.
pest control operator (PCO)
A licensed professional who uses various chemicals, sprays, and traps to prevent or eliminate infestations.