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statistics

the science of collecting, analyzing and drawing conclusions from data.

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population of interest

the entire collection of individuals or objects about which information is desired.

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sample

a subset of the population, selected for study in some prescribed manner.

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descriptive statistics

methods for organizing and summarizing data.

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inferential statsitics

generalizing from a sample to the population from which it was selected.

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univariate data set

a data set consisting of observations on a single attribute.

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categorical data (qualitative)

if the individual observations are categorical responses.

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numerical data (quantitative)

if each observation is a number.

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bivariate data set

a data set consisting of observations on two different attributes.

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multivariate data set

a data set consisting of observations for each of two or more attributes.

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numerical data: discrete

if the possible values are isolated points on the number line.

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numerical data: continuous

if the set of possible values forms an entire interval on the number line.

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frequency distribution for categorical data

a table that displays the possible categories along with the associated frequencies or relative frequencies.

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frequency

for a particular category, it is the number of times the category appears in the data set.

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relative freqency

for a particular category, it is the fraction or proportion of the time that the category appears in the data set, it is calculated as: relative frequency = frequency/number of observations in the data set

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relative frequency distribution

when the table includes relative frequencies.

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bar chart

a graph of the frequency distribution of categorical data.

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dotplot

a simple way to display numerical data when the data set is reasonably small.

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