Special Ed. General Curriculum 163
Terms in this set (175)
What is rote counting?
Rote counting is used to answer the question "how many"
What is interdependence?
Resources that rely on each other for preservation. For example, a plant needing water.
What technique refers to students working together in small groups to accomplish their goals?
Indirect instruction seeks a high level of student involvement in observing, investigating, drawing inferences from data, or forming hypotheses. It takes advantage of students' interest and the teacher only provides feedback when needed.
What is context reading?
Words with multiple meanings can be understood using the words around the given word. Graphophonemic is the letter sound connection of decoding, which doesn't help with the "meaning" of a word
You are introducing your students to the periodic table. You have discussed atoms, protons and electrons. How is the periodic table arranged?
The table is an arrangement of all the elements in order according to their atomic number (the number of protons it possesses)
What is Bloom's Taxonomy?
Bloom's Taxonomy divides thinking skills into higher and lower order sets.
1. Knowledge level -- information directly from the text
2. Comprehension level -- giving the meaning of terms, idioms, language, making inferences etc.
3. Application level -- applying knowledge from a text to a new passage or situation
4. Analysis level -- examining parts of a passage to sort, categorize, make connections etc.
5. Synthesis level -- to make generalizations or to take information and develop a strategy
6. Evaluation level -- to judge veracity, fact or opinion or bias
What is a concrete and semi-concrete method?
The Concrete method is the "doing" stage using objects to model. Semi-concrete is more representational, which may involves pictures or dots, the "seeing" stage
What is a abstract and semi-abstract method?
With the semi-abstract method, students use symbols, such as tally marks, to represent objects.
What is the difference between an accommodation and a modification?
The term "accommodation" may be used to describe an alteration of environment, curriculum format, or equipment that allows an individual with a disability to gain access to content and/or complete assigned tasks...accommodations do not alter what is being taught. During modification the curriculum can be lessened and made shorter.
What is the RTI model?
Tier I refers universal screening and tests. If a student falls below the expected levels of accomplishments (called benchmarks) in Tier I, and they are a some risk of academic failure, they are placed in Tier II (receive differentiated instruction). Students placed in Tier III are at a high risk for failure (diagnostic test administered).
What federal laws prohibits discrimination of a person because of their learning disabilities?
IDEA, Section 504, and ADA
The Test of Early Language Development (TELD) assesses children of what age group?
3-7 and this test seeks to measure receptive and expressive language.
Which of the following is an element of SCREAM that should always be included in a teacher's presentation in order for it to be effective?
SCREAM Variables should be included as a teacher delivers instruction to her class.
S - Structure
C - Clarity
R - Redundancy (saying multiple times for meaning)
A - Appropriate Rate
M - Maximized Engagement
What does immersion refer to in bilingual education?
Classes that are entirely in English and do not use the native language.
What is the INCLUDE strategy?
1. Student performance is the result of interactions between students and the instructional environment
2. By analyzing students' needs and demands of the classroom environment, teachers can make appropriate accommodations for students with special needs and culturally diverse backgrounds.
What is Direct Instruction?
Teacher-centered instruction that focuses on carefully articulated lessons in which cognitive skills are broken down into small units, sequenced deliberately, and taught explicitly (fully and clearly).
Children who struggle with phonemic awareness would benefit from which exercise?
Rhyming. Students with cognitive disabilities such as dyslexia have trouble breaking words down into phonemes. Rhyming exercises help children develop rhyme awareness, and this leads to better phonemic awareness
The Assistive Technology Act of 1997 states that if a student requires technology to help them, they are to be provided it. Is the student allowed to take the technology home?
Maybe, depends on how much this technology helps them learn.
What are five primary purposes to having an assessment made of a child.
1. IEP development
2. Instructional Planning
4. Evaluation of children
A criterion often used to determine whether or not a child has a learning disability, based on whether or not the child is working up to the expectations for his/her age is called what?
Achievement/ability discrepancy. IQ and EQ testing are not appropriate for students with disabilities (unless really low). Standardized tests don't diagnose disability.
What is self-help development?
Allows a student to learn how to take care of himself. Sensory-motor deals with movement, functional development refers to skills to interact in the environment, and social-emotional helps people interact with other individuals.
Joshua's parents come to school to talk to his third grade teacher about his reading. His mother states that Josh can read every word on the page and wants to know why he is getting such poor scores in reading tests. What might you say to Joshua's parents.
Joshua has good fluency but lacks comprehension. He can read the words but does not get the meaning.
What does the MAZE task accomplish?
1. It can be scored manually or by computer.
2. It offers distractors which help determine a reader's skill (similar words around it)
3. It is sensitive to the reading comprehension of novice readers.
What can teachers do to intervene with high-risk students?
Set high expectations At-risk students are likely to be low-performers in class. Rather than expecting poor performance, teachers should set high expectations for everyone.
Economic theory is part of a social studies program. You want your students to understand the basic economic theories. Which project would most likely teach them the theory of economic socialism?
Students design a market in which workers coordinate their efforts so that all share equally in labor and profit
One of the many tests a primary grade teacher might use is a phonological awareness test. In this test, the teacher might ask a student to say, "boat" and then instruct her to say it again without the "b." Maria is asked to do such a task and she says boat, then when asked to subtract the letter b. she says, "oars". What skill is Maria using when she answers "oars"?
She is using semantic cues. Maria knows that oars belong with boats. She is using the meaning of the word to answer. She is missing the phonological awareness that she needs to connect letters with their sounds.
What is the difference between syntatcic cues and semantic cues?
Syntactic cues are using the clues about sentence structure to determine the meaning of the word.
Semantic cues are using the sentence to determine the word in context. Example: "The queen placed her shining drow on her head." In this example you would deduce that a drow is a crown type thing even though you don't know what exactly it means.
How can you accurately show a representation of the moon?
The moon reflects the sun's light. The moon orbits the Earth. One side of the moon reflects light onto the Earth. Depending on where the moon is in its orbit more or less of the lighted surface is visible. This causes the phases of the moon. When the surface is increasing, the moon is waxing. When less is visible, the moon is waning.
A teacher assesses a child using a running record. She notes that the student's prosody need to improve. What is prosody?
Cadence and expression because prosody refers to rhythmic aspect of language . A fluency test, such as a running record, assesses a student's speed, accuracy and use of expression. Cadence refers to how a student reads in phrases or whole thoughts.
What is a formative assessment?
A formative assessment (journal) is also called an informal assessment. Formative assessments may or may not be graded. A journal is an example of a formative assessment. The other answers are summative assessments (unit test, state test, chapter quiz).
When assessing a student's sight word knowledge, what two components are important?
Speed and accuracy. Sight words are words which are recognized automatically. Dolch and Fry have made a list of 300 sight or high-frequency words a student needs to know. When testing, speed and accuracy need to be noted. Decoding will slow sight reading.
What are the stages of the self-directed learning model?
What is a stanine?
A standardized test score.
Aspects of schizophrenia.
Characterized as having delusions and hallucinations. It is the MOST prevalent amount learning disabled students.
The developmental theorist who believed that a person's moral development was based on his/her cognitive reasoning, and hence expanded the four stages of cognitive development is whom?
Lawrence Kohlberg based his six stages of moral development on Piaget's cognitive stages. Each person passes through every stage progressively. In stages 1 and 2 (called the preconventional level), the person is focused on the self. In stages 3 and 4 (called the conventional level), people tend to focus more on the world around them and appropriate societal conventions. In the last two stages (the postconventional level), which many people never reach, the individual acts according to their own ideals are more valuable than society's laws.
Mr. Carey believes his student, Ben is having behavioral problems. Of the following, which would not be a behavior rating scale used to confirm or refute?
The Kaufman Test is used to measure educational achievement.
The theorist of cognitive development considered the preoperational stage of development to be what?
When children think in symbolic terms for the most part. Usually from ages 2-7, children think in terms of symbols and in turn use those symbols in their own play, even if the actual object that represents the symbol is not present in that play.
What is the true score?
The observed score of an assessment without error
A special education teacher who keeps general notes is practicing what?
Narrative observation Narrative observation is not as focused as semi-structured observation or highly structured observation. It is, however, helpful in assessing the performance of students with disabilities.
Patrick is a live wire in first grade. He loves Kid Writing time and writes two or three lines each time with illustrations. He writes "JXCCTWM" and tells his helper that it says, "Patrick and his dog like to walk to the park." Which stage of spelling development is Patrick in?
Prephonemic spelling. Prephonemic spelling is when children realize that they need letters to spell words but make no connection between the letters and the sounds. Letter use is random. Early letter-name spelling is when the children represent only one or two sounds in a word, usually the first or last sounds. Letter-name spelling incorporates vowels but these may be incorrect. Within-word spelling is when the student can consistently spell words with short vowels but not words with long vowels.
0 and 1 have special properties in math. 0 is the "identity element" for which operation?
Your second grade students are asked to write a business letter asking for information about a product. They need to learn which aspect of writing in order to do this?
Which of these mental disorders is most commonly found among all disabilities?
What are the ranges for IQ scores?
80-89 lower average, 90-109 average, 110-119 high average, 120-129 superior, 130+ high superior
A teacher uses rhyme and music in class to help instruct students with which of the following disabilities?
Speaking. Nonverbal students who have the physical ability to speak can benefit from different instructional strategies. Music and rhyme provide students with patterns for them to verbally imitate.
You ask your students to explain what Cassie meant when she thought that "The moon was a silver dollar floating above the clouds." According to Bloom's Taxonomy, what level of skill do your students need to employ?
Comprehension level. Understanding a metaphor or simile is a level two skill.
What is pragmatic language?
Using language for a specific purpose. Pragmatic language is the ability to use words or statements in the proper context. For example, if some one makes the statement, 'Your eyes are bigger than your stomach", a child who has functioning pragmatic language skills, would interpret the speaker's statement as not being literal. In this example, the speaker is saying the person wants more food than his / her stomach can handle.
An informal phonics inventory assesses a reader's phonetic skill acquisition. Which are the first three subtests of an informal reading inventory?
Consonant sounds, Digraphs, and Beginning Consonant Blends. The informal phonics inventory is a screening test. The first three subtests test the most basic phonetic skills. The next level would include ending consonant blends, short vowels and long vowels.
What is a criterion-referenced assessment?
A student is measured based on his / her own mastery of a skill rather than comparing the student to others
What is a performance-based assessment?
Students are being assessed based on the knowledge he/she demonstrates
What is extrinsic motivation?
Behavior that is driven by external awards like money or food.
How is dysorthographia defined?
A disability that affects a student's ability to spell. A disability that affects a student's ability to spell Students who are dysothographics have difficulty with visual memory recall of words. This disorder can manifest in a number of ways, including slowness in writing and grammar and spelling mistakes.
One of the most important math concepts a teacher can demonstrate for her students is reasonableness. Which is an example of reasonableness?
Reasonableness is the ability to validate the solution by verifying the answer. I have 25 cookies. I bake 12 more. I now have more than 35 cookies.
Based on the everyday math performance of a student, over a certain period of time, a teacher might be able to recognize which of the following disabilities?
Dyscalculia. Dyscalculia is a learning disorder which causes one to have difficulty with doing math problems and understanding time
Which previous Supreme Court ruling did Brown v. Board of Education overturn?
Plessy v. Ferguson. Though the Plessy case did not directly regard education, it did espouse and indeed guarantee "separate but equal" accommodations aboard rail cars for blacks and whites. Seeing as the accommodations were indeed separate but by no means equal, Brown brought race into the classroom, but it affected the "separate but equal" doctrine everywhere.
What is antiseptic bouncing?
Removing a student from a distressing situation before inappropriate behavior occurs. This method is proven to be an effective way of teaching a child to avoid inappropriate behaviors by recognizing the triggers that promote such behavior. A teacher must be sure not to inadvertently reward a student who is instigating a problem. Often, the student is sent on an errand to diffuse and or distract from their emotional disturbance.
What condition is best described as a result of several mental or physical disorders or secondary to an underlying disorder?
What are the three stages of the student evaluation process?
Stage 1: The student is monitored for some time before further action is taken.
Stage 2: Informal assessments are given to the student by the special education teacher. Stage 3: A psychological assessment is administered.
A teacher explaining organization of written language may include the discussion of what?
Sequencing of sentences. In addition to the sequencing of sentences, the sequencing of ideas is a common element when teaching organization of the written language. The sequencing of paragraphs is also discussed.
What is apraxia?
Apraxia is a disorder of the brain and nervous system in which a person is unable to perform tasks or movements when asked, even though the request or command is understood and has the proper muscles to work.
What is an auditory processing disorder?
Having difficulty in hearing differences between certain sounds and has problems with reading comprehension, and language.
What is an objective in the IEP?
all objectives must be comparable and measurable, which fit the student's individual ability and potential growth rate. These goals can always be revamped, but a good IEP at least has measurable goals, even if they go unmet.
What are characteristics of formal tests?
1. scored in a prescribed manner
2. directions are clear-cut and allow for little discretion by the teacher
3. Mandated by district, county, or state agency
What is a formative assessment?
The teacher is assessing skills and suggesting instruction. She can then monitor progress with observation and another running record. Summative assessments occur at the end of a specific period of time and represent a student's mastery (standardized).
What is the best definition of Differentiated Instruction?
This means changing the pace, level, of kind of instruction provided in response to individual students' needs, learning styles, and interests.
What is a concrete noun?
You can experience this group of nouns with your five senses: you see them, hear them, smell them, taste them, and feel them. You cannot "experience" abstract nouns
What is concurrent validity?
Concurrent validity is an example of criterion-related validity. It occurs when a test correlates with a measure that is proven valid. Concurrent validity measures are taken at the same time.
What is WRAP?
Wraparound program. This program is designed to help students with emotional and behavioral problems as well as those with certain autism disorders. Not only may school representatives be involved with this process, but also family.
With regard to Special Education, what does "BIP" stand for?
This "plan" is drafted to help an IEP best implement strategies to better a student's behaviors that negatively impact his academic success. It is also known as a "Behavior Improvement Plan".
Which skill comes first in learning to read?
Phonemic awareness. Phonemic awareness is understanding that words are made up of separate sounds. Phonics is connecting spoken language with the letters of written language. Word-study follows phonics. It is the knowledge of word parts, such as prefixes and suffixes, which aids students as they read and write words.
Of the following, who must make sure the student studies for all tests, on the appropriate days?
Which of the following is the first step of the grieving process that a child must go through in order to recover?
Denial. Anger is the sixth and final step of the grieving process and depression, the fifth. Guilt is the fourth step.
Designating places for students to turn in their work will improve which of the following?
Classroom organization. Classroom organization Classrooms should be neat and organized for students to remain focused. Allocating a permanent place to return papers will prevent everything from being piled on a teacher's desk. Classroom organization affects classroom management.
How can you compare a square and a rectangle?
Squares are special rectangles. All its sides are equal.
The use of nuclear energy to produce power is a controversial topic. Another type of energy being proposed is solar energy. What type of energy is solar energy?
Radiant energy. Radiant energy is a form of wave energy. The sun produces ultraviolet rays which result in solar energy. All heat comes from the sun. Mechanical energy is created by moving bodies. Electrical energy is energy produced by moving electrons. Magnetic energy is the force of a magnet -- push or pull.
What is personification?
Personification is assigning human characteristics or behaviors to non-humans. John is correct, real pigs don't build brick houses, people do.
During an Informal Reading Assessment, your student makes many miscues while reading aloud. You decide to stop testing and mark this as his frustration level. Your reading specialist asks you to analyze the types of miscues the student made. What is the purpose of analyzing miscues?
It will help you direct instruction.
Analysis of miscues can give insights about how reading is developing and how to structure instruction for this student. The type of miscue can be semantic, syntactic or graphophonic.
Edward Fry developed a readability graph which is used to determine the grade level for a book or passage. What does this graph analyze?
Number of sentences per 100 words and the number of syllables per 100 words. The result of graphing the number of sentences per 100 words and the number of syllables per 100 words determines the grade level for a book according to Fry. This is often used for making up test passages.
Which of the following is true of acquisition as it relates to levels of learning?
a. It relates to "an accuracy criterion."
b. It deals with a "student's observable rendition of task-relevant behavior."
c. It refers to "students exhibiting a critical skill in an appropriate context."
d. It refers to "the context in which skills are applied."
It relates to "an accuracy criterion." Choice B refers to production as a level of learning and Choice C, application. Choice D is application and generalization.
What grade levels study what area of social studies?
K-1 Family Home, School
3 State history and geography and/or holidays and history of the U.S.
4 Regions of the world or state history and geography
5 American history and geography
6 World history and geography
7 State history and/or U.S. History
8 Civics, American History
A student who is dyslexic has trouble doing which of the following?
Breaking words into phonemes. Teachers who assess a student and discover a problem breaking words into phonemes may indicate dyslexia. Students can have dyslexia and still be high functioning.
What is cognitive constructivism?
Cognitive constructivism was what Jean Piaget, the theorist who developed the four stages of cognitive development (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational), believed occurred as children learned. Through learning, a child necessarily makes mistakes, which builds greater capacities to learn and grow.
Under the Differentiated model, what does Rigorous mean?
Rigorous means that the students are pushing themselves past their own "perceived" learning abilities. Rigorous curriculum is not designed to push the student to fail, but to encourage the student to use foundational learning principles to master new content. Overall, it is a proven, effective method.
What piece of AT can students benefit from who have auditory impairments and behavioral and cognitive disabilities?
At what point do teachers need to identify students with intellectual disabilities and practice decoding skills with them?
After third grade. After third grade Children are typically not taught decoding skills after the third grade. Students who read at a level below the rest of their classmates need to be identified and given remedial instruction on decoding strategies.
Explain the difference between a line graph, a pie graph, and a bar graph.
A bar graph can be used to compare changes over time. It is best used with large changes. A line graph would be more appropriate if the changes are smaller and more gradients are needed. A pie graph is best when showing parts of a whole.
What are learning disabilities identified in part by?
A severe discrepancy between potential or ability and actual achievement. low IQ square, behavioral issues, and state standardized tests are not used to identify a disability.
Bobby's hearing skills are fine, but he has difficulty understanding particular aspects of speech. What is he most likely experiencing?
Receptive language disorder. Students with Receptive language disorder generally have difficulty when it comes to mentally organizing their thoughts, which leads to problems with speech, and sometimes even writing. They sometimes have problems responding appropriately to spoken language.
The State and School District may ask that other information be present in a student's IEP, but which of the following is REQUIRED by the IDEA?
An IEP meeting with parent(s) and education professionals. A parent can request an Independent Educational Evaluation at the cost of the school district, if they are not satisfied with the results. Also, the IEP is written by a team of people, and all parties are certainly involved, but the written document may have items that are questionable by some - consensus is not necessary. The progress of the student is measured frequently, but officially reported on an annual basis.
What is the purpose of Bruininks-Oseretsky, Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Stanford Achievement Test Series, 10th Edition, and Peabody Developmental?
The Stanford Achievement Test Series, 10th Edition is used to measure overall achievement for grades K-12. In addition to choices A, B and D, the Test of Gross Motor Development - 2nd Edition is used to test motor abilities.
An individual with impaired social interaction, communication, imagination, and flexible thinking, but without delays in cognitive or language development would most likely be diagnosed with which of the following?
Asperger's syndrome. Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome experience social difficulties similar to those experienced by individuals with autism, including communication difficulties, impaired social interaction, and rigid thinking. However, unlike autism, individuals with Asperger's Syndrome do not experience cognitive or language delays.
Which assessment is useful for an autistic student?
Child behavior checklist, peabody developmental motor scale, vineland adaptive behavior scale, or standford-binet intelligence scale?
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Autistic students have trouble with social skills. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale measures social abilities of students. The assessment is useful for students with other special needs that affect socialization.
Which agency responds to complaints from parents and students?
OCR The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) works with IDEA. The OCR responds to any complaints reported by parents, students, or school officials that relate to violations of student rights.
If a student seems to learn best by hearing a lecture or performing an activity out of a textbook, s/he is probably what kind of learner?
An abstract conceptualizer.
What learning skills are affected often and specifically by Tourette's Syndrome?
Writing and paying attention.
Parental support is essential for which type of discipline?
Assertive discipline. Parental support is necessary to maintain assertive discipline. It also necessary for the teachers to have support from the administration.
What is a "reading guide?"
A list of questions which must be answered during reading. It helps the reader focus on key ideas and models strategic reading. The teacher must decide what is important in a passage to guide understanding.
What is the speculative writing style?
Speculative writing explores an idea. It often makes more than one point.
Persuasive writing tries to convince the reader of something, a position or idea. Expository writing is used to explain or clarify an idea or process. A narrative tells a story or gives an account of an incident.
Your eight grade language arts students are given a new assessment. The results show that you have too many students in the advanced reading groups. Previous tests have confirmed your grouping. What may the new assessment lack?
Construct validity. A test that reflects the curriculum taught has content validity. A test that conforms to real-world application has construct validity. Tests that predict future performance or success have predictive validity. Two tests that can be compared to see if the tests correlate have concurrent validity if they are given at the same time. Your advanced students have shown that they can do advanced work in previous tests, so perhaps this test is not a valid evaluating tool.
Your class is getting ready to read a selection on Mayan cities. You use a directed reading activity to introduce key vocabulary. Which aspect of comprehension are you aiding?
Building prior knowledge. Students will better understand a text if they have prior knowledge of the subject matter. Introducing key vocabulary is a good way to do this. This vocabulary should be specific to the text.
You are doing a classifying activity with your fourth grade students. You ask them to class the planets of the solar system according to composition. Which is the correct grouping?
Earth, Mars, Venus and Mercury. Jupiter is composed mostly of hydrogen gas. It is almost a giant half-formed sun. Earth, Mercury Mars and Venus the inner planets, are composed mostly of rocky, metallic materials. Uranus, Saturn, and Neptune are composed of hydrogen, helium, and ices of ammonia and methane. Pluto's status as a planet is in dispute. It is closest in composition to a comet.
You are discussing time zones with your sixth grade students. You note that when it is 6:00 a.m. in New York, it would be 12 noon in London. Your students ask how time zones are determined. How would you answer?
The prime meridian, a line of longitude, determines time zones. It runs through Greenwich, England.
An ELL would have trouble with what aspect of the English language.
Orthography. Orthography English has 26 letters that make up 41 sounds. English orthography is complex and may confuse students because it is not possible to match every letter to a sound.
Under the Differentiated model, what does Complex mean?
This means the lessons are challenging and actively engage students beyond a superficial overview.
The Singapore Math curriculum is being used world-wide. One of the strategies used is compensation. Which is an example of compensation with subtraction?
142 - 37 = 145 - 40
For each student's IEP, which of the following is usually NOT included in the write-up?
Weekly goals for the student
Which of the following theorists worked on the development of thinking?
Jean Piaget. Piaget observed infants and their learning and developed the four stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operational stage, and formal operational stage. Each of these stages are supposed to take place between certain ages.
When teaching written language, penmanship is a part of which of the following?
Mechanics. Capitalization, punctuation and format are taught in mechanics. Spelling and error monitoring are also a part of mechanics.
Visual behavioral charts will help students with which of the following?
Behavioral delays. Visual reminders are useful for students with behavioral issues. A visual chart allows the students to recall the behaviors. It also improves their development.
Your school's RTI (Response to Intervention) program requires that you teach a phonemic awareness reading group. Which is an example of this type of group?
Students who are orally breaking words into syllables.
Nick comes to your fourth grade classroom right before you give the state test in March. He takes the test but the scores won't be in until June. You need to know his reading level to place him now. Which type of assessment might you give him?
Criterion-referenced test. Norm-Referenced or Based tests compare one child's results with the results of other children, or the "norm". Norms include percentile ranks, grade equivalents, stanines, normal curve equivalents, and scale scores. Criterion-Referenced tests compare a child's scores to a pre-established criterion or benchmark. It does not depend on the scores of others. These are useful for mastery learning or competency-based assessment. A Formal assessment is usually a group test, such as the state test. A Criterion-referenced test would give the results you need to place Nick.
Within an IEP is the method in which it will be implemented. Which of the following refers to the special education teacher working with the general education teacher to design a class environment conducive to the student's learning?
There are many types of learning objectives. Which type is the following?
The student will be able to locate headings in a non-fiction selection and make a prediction about the content under the heading.
Cognitive. Learning objectives are focused on the learner or student. They describe a proposed change in behavior. Cognitive objectives have to do with thinking and learning. Affective objectives have to do with valuing and feelings. Psychomotor objectives have to do with skills. All have to do with a change in behavior of the learner.
Mrs. Coldren is using beads to teach set theory in her first grade class. The student have done various things with the beads, such as sorting by size or color. She asks, "Can we arrange the beads by size?" What concept of sets is she asking her students to employ?
Ordering. Classification is sorting using a specific criteria. Ordering is arranging objects by a specific quality, such as smallest to largest. Patterning is placing objects in a perceived pattern, such as large, small, large, small. Comparing objects relates to counting or one-to-one correspondence.
Ms. Mack is teaching her kindergarten class the letters of the alphabet. She started with the consonant sounds and added the vowels as they were pertinent for her beginning readers and writers. Most of her students know the shapes and names of the letters by now, though many of them have not connected the letter sounds to the letter. What do most of her students possess?
Based on the information in the question, most of Ms. Mack's students have alphabetic awareness. Students usually come to school with some measure of print awareness. They know to hold the book the right way and to "read" from front to back. Early on, the learn the left to right scheme of text. This awareness of print and books and how they are used is called print awareness. It is an important part of learning to read and write. Children with pint awareness understand that the words they see in print and the words they speak are related. Phonemic awareness is understanding that spoken words are made of separate small sounds. Alphabetic knowledge is knowing the names and shapes of the letters. Fluency is reading quickly and accurately and with prosody. All are necessary skills for a reader.
What goal does NOT need to be included in an IEP?
Modification. All of the answers provide students with access to the curriculum. Modifications and accommodations do not need to be listed in IEP goals. The other answers are part of IEP goals.
A multicultural student is struggling in her language skills. Which is the best way to determine if there is a disability?
Perform assessments in the student's native language and English.
Which of the following is a condition that would cause problems with writing?
Dysgraphia. Dysgraphia is a condition that causes problems with handwriting, spelling, and organizing ideas. Diphtheria is an acute infectious disease.
A teacher who needs to address anger management with students who have behavioral challenges would use which technique?
Modeling. Modeling is an effective instructional strategy. Modeling is not limited to academic skills. Teachers also use it to demonstrate conflict resolution, problem solving, and anger management.
A student with Asperger's syndrome scores a stanine of 8 in math and on the individualized achievement test. What is the correct course of action?
Place the student in the advanced math class with any necessary support An 8 is an above average stanine. A student with Asperger's is capable of functioning in an advanced math class, but he or she will need the necessary support to succeed.
Fran is in your first grade classroom. He recognizes his letters and can reproduce the sounds of several. He knows a few sight words but has difficulty with decoding. The teacher needs to place him in an RTI (Response to Intervention) group. Which group would he fit into?
A group working on phonemic awareness
What is an element of SCREAM that promotes effective instruction?
Redundancy The SCREAM Variables should be included as a teacher delivers instruction to her class. S - Structure C - Clarity R - Redundancy E- Enthusiasm A - Appropriate Rate M - Maximized Engagement
How far in advance should plans be made for a special education child to enter a vocational school?
According to the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act, a developmental disability refers to a severe and/or chronic disability of an individual 5 years old or older who does which of the following?
Has substantial limitations in learning and/or expressing language and speech.
What is the first step of the positive classroom discipline theory?
Classroom structure The answers are all part of Jones' four step model for the positive classroom discipline theory. The first step is creating the classroom structure. This involves the environment, rules, and routines.
Allowing students to record classes would help which group the LEAST?
Physical disability. Students with behavioral and cognitive disabilities who have problems focusing, benefit from being able to listen to the lecture again. Students with visual impairments also benefit from recordings. Students with physical disabilities may be better off with other types of assistance.
Which of the following elements of teacher-delivered presentations is characterized by the teacher having the attention of the students and providing the students with an overview and objectives of a lesson?
Structure. There are six elements of effective teacher presentations. In addition to structure, these include , clarity, redundancy, enthusiasm, appropriate rate and maximized engagement.
Mrs. Shields gives her students a variety of objects to sort. She asks them to group the items. Then she asks them to explain why they grouped objects together. What concept is Mrs. Shields working on with her class?
Classification is sorting using a specific criteria. Ordering is arranging objects by a specific quality, such as smallest to largest. Patterning is placing objects in a perceived pattern, such as large, small, large, small. Comparing objects relates to counting or one-to-one correspondence. All can be taught with early primary students.
Curriculum that includes play, social skill development, and sensory integration is which of the following?
Functional. Functional curriculum includes play, social skills development, and sensory integration. Functional curriculum is necessary for special needs students. Teachers often need to supplement their curriculum for it to be functional because most curriculum focuses on intellectual development.
The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children is an assessment designed for students with which of the following?
The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children is an assessment designed for students with weak verbal skills. The test is not the most psychometrically sound. It is only recommended for students who are able to follow directions.
Sherry can quickly create sentences, but she finds it difficult to use them appropriately.What disorder is this generally characterized as?
Semantic-pragmatic disorder There are many characteristics associated with this condition. For example, a child may have difficulty with pronouns and verb tenses. The child may also have a hard time with reading body language or understanding jokes.
Your school overlooks a field. Your students notice that the field held more flowers last year than this. Some say that they have noticed fewer flowers in the past few years. You encourage them to figure out why this might be happening. What type of scientific approach are you encouraging them to use?
Inquiry. Inquiry is often used to investigate current problems. It may involve designing and conducting investigations that lead to the identification of issues to analyze. Inquiry is used to examine single topics or in integrated sciences. The students will have to gather information about the field and interpret it. They might design experiments based on soil, water, rainfall etc. Deductive reasoning is top down reasoning -- the teacher presents generalizations and then examples to support them. Students make assessments based on these.
Which is an example of a mnemonic device?
HOMES to remember the Great Lakes
A mnemonic device is a memory -related device. HOMES stands for Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie and Superior.
Your students participate in an activity in which they attempt to construct triangles made from Popsicle sticks. In one activity, each student makes his/her own triangle using all the steps involved. In another activity, each student does one step in the building process. Which theme of social studies is being explored with these activities?
Production, distribution and consumption. Children need to be aware of the different types of production, in this case craft versus production line, in order to begin to understand the world of work and economy. This can start in the early grades with an activities such as these.
What is a political map?
A political globe or map shows the location of countries, states, cities etc. A topographical map shows altitudes and land forms. A physical map locates physical features such as landforms, vegetation, climate or soils.
What strategy is often used for students with cognitive and psychological disorders who have trouble taking notes?
Find a confidential note taker. Students may volunteer to take notes for children with disabilities. Note takers should not know the names of the students using their notes. Teachers may find the other strategies helpful, but until the student has mastered note taking, he or she will benefit from thorough and organized notes.
Echolalia is a behavior often exhibited by individuals with which disability?
Autism. Echolalia, or the immediate or delayed repeating of whole, unanalyzed phrases, is often exhibited by individuals with autism. Autism is often characterized by communication disorders, and many of those who eventually develop functional speech skills still exhibit communication deficits.
Besides genetics, what factor can contribute to a student's cognitive and physical disabilities?
Parent abuse of drugs during pregnancy. Parent abuse of drugs during pregnancy A child born of a mother who is a drug addict can have both cognitive and physical disabilities. They can also be born with a certain level of the drugs consumed by the mother and be addicted themselves.
Greg has a learning disability, but the only school in the area equipped to handle it is a private school. Who will pay for Greg to attend the private school?
School board. Under the IDEA Act of 1990, if a student is found to have a learning disability and the only school capable of handling it is a private school, the school board will pay for the child to attend that school. This is to make sure that the student's interests are put forth rather than having to settle for inadequate education because of his parent's financial situation.
What part of the EHA referred to the need for special education evaluation in babies and toddlers?
Part H. It became apparent soon after the EHA was passed that the need for special education existed in children under the minimum age it covered. Part H was passed to make sure that children as young as 1 were given the same special education opportunities as their older counterparts.
Tina comes into your language arts classroom in the middle of the fall term. You want to assess her reading level. You give her a grade level cloze test and she scores in the 40%-60% range. You would assess her at being in which level of reading at grade level?
Instructional. A score below 40% would be place her at the frustration level. A score above 60% would place her in the independent level. You might want to give her a lower level test to find her independent reading level.
What is the benefit to a traditional classroom arrangement?
It makes it easier for teachers to walk among students. The traditional seating arrangement includes rows of desks. This makes it easier for teachers to walk among their students and improves discipline.
What mnemonic strategy creates rhyming proxies for numbers (e.g. three is tree, four is door)?
The Pegword Method. This method allows students to link new information to numbers. Letter strategies are generally used to help students remember lists or categories of data. The Keyword Method helps students remember content area data. The Number Method is not an actual mnemonic strategy.
What categorizes a student as Autistic?
Resistance to change, repetitious activity, unusual responses to sensory experience
Vibrotactile systems assist students with which disability?
Hearing. The vibrotactile systems translate sound into vibrations and light. It helps teach lip reading, and is used by deaf students in class.
Which of the following orthopedic impairments are caused by disease?
Poliomyelitis, more commonly known as Polio, causes orthopedic impairment by disease. Polio is a virus that affects the nerves and can lead to paralysis.
The Callier Asuza Scale is primarily aimed at diagnosing what group of special needs students?
Deaf-blind. The Callier Asuza test is designed specifically for the deaf-blind child and what skills he or she should be able to master at different levels of education. This scale is based on the ongoing observation of a student and should be conducted by someone who is very familiar with the child.
A student with autism also has a psychological condition. This is an example of what?
Co-occurring condition. Autism is a developmental disorder. It can include conditions with other developmental, psychiatric, neurologic, or medical problems. Multiple disabilities is its own category under IDEA.
What president passed the No Child Left Behind Act?
In 2004, President George W. Bush passed the No Child Left Behind Act that helps all children achieve at least the basic level of comprehension in academic subjects. This especially helps special education students because it requires schools to help them reach the average academic progress as their peers.
Interviews, observations, informal assessments, and norm-referenced tests make up which of the following?
Four Pillars of Assessment. The Four Pillars of Assessment as established by Dr. Ellie Kazemi are interviews, observations, informal assessments, and norm-referenced tests. Teachers need to interview the child and caregivers and make observations and informal assessments. Standardized tests are the last step, and the results of all findings are used to make an official assessment.
What does the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) report?
Since 1990, NAEP has reported scores for states. This is done so that the scores can be compared to other states and to national averages. These are often reported in the newspaper causing controversy as states are compared. They report the nation's average, which can be compared to other nations, and a state's average, so that they can be compared to other states. The NAEP has divided benchmarks into basic, proficient and advanced. Students are placed in these categories and a state or school district may be judged on these percentages.
What is true of aptitude tests?
The test assesses a child's ability to modify behavior when presented with certain situations When a test is administered to one student, usually via paper and pencil, it is known as an Individual test. Achievement tests measure a student's past learning. A child is usually recommended for further testing if the result of a screening test requires it.
Which of the following types of seizures is characterized by a blank stare, beginning and ending abruptly with a loss of memory of the event by the individual?
Absence seizures may sometimes be mistaken for daydreaming or lack of attention. The student stares blankly for several seconds and is unaware of their surroundings. They return to full awareness after the seizure. This can have ramifications for learning, as the student may be missing parts of lessons due to the seizure activity.
What are some advantages to making assessment accommodations for students with disabilities?
The students become more motivated and confident.
The federal definition of "autism" indicates that the developmental disability significantly affects what part of a child's development, specifically?
Verbal and nonverbal communication. As defined by the federal code 34 CFR 300.7, autism is a developmental disability that affects the child's educational performance, based on the child's inability to communicate in typical ways. If a child has been diagnosed with autism, s/he will be in need of special education in school.
Your mentor encourages you to use place value mats in your classroom. Which is not a benefit of using place value mats in your math class?
It is the most concrete way to represent a number. A place value mat is very versatile. It gives context to place value and helps students fill in the gaps between knowing a number and understanding what it means. It helps students understand that 1 is part of ten and ten is part of 100. It helps build money management skills. It reinforces numerical relationships. It helps students understand the interchangeability of numbers (3 can be 3 or part of 30 meaning 3 tens.) The most concrete way to represent a number would be with the actual quantity the number represents, such as ten beans meaning 10 and 100 beans showing 100.
What is Vygotsky's term for the difference between what a student can do alone and what he or she can do with help or scaffolds?
Zone of Proximal Development. The difference between what a student can do alone and what he or she can do with help or scaffolds is the Zone of Proximal Development, according to Vygtosky's Social Development Theory. This is the place where learning takes place for children.
You are attempting to show your students that gambling is risky. You put one yellow tile in a bag with 20 blue tiles. All of the following are true except:
The odds of pulling the yellow tile are 1:20.
What type of classroom set up allows students to choose their noise level?
Listening stations. Students operate better with different noise levels. Listening stations provide headphones and music to students who need background noise. Students may opt to study quietly.
Which is the best method for teaching students how to manage anger?
Modeling. Modeling can be used to demonstrate academic skills, conflict resolution, problem solving, and anger management. It is helpful for students to see examples of healthy emotional reactions.
One of Kounin's effective classroom management techniques might be what?
To learn to cope with multiple situations at once. The rest of the answer choices are hallmarks of the Canter (Assertive Discipline) Model. Although these are good methods of effective classroom management and probably play some role in Kounin's techniques, the rest of the tips are as follows: 1) show the students that you are prepared, 2) strive to maintain classroom momentum, 3) involve the whole class always, 4) be enthusiastic and use multifaceted educational techniques, and 5) be aware of the ripple effect.
Mrs. West's class is measuring the absorption of colors in various gases. What tool would her students be using?
A spectrophotometer. A spectroscope separates visible light into its component colors. In a kindergarten class, a teacher might demonstrate with a crystal prism. A spectrophotometer measures the selective absorption of colors as a function of some property of a solution, solid or gas. These tools help students describe, measure, and compare observations.
Which of the following body systems are normally affected by cystic fibrosis?
Respiratory and digestive. The respiratory and digestive systems are mainly affected in children with cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis causes a thicker than normal mucus that can lead to obstructions in the respiratory and digestive systems. It can cause repeated infections of the lungs and difficulty digesting food and absorbing nutrients.
Before Mrs. Lewis plans her social studies units, she uses various methods, such as prior knowledge discussions, multiple choice tests, think-pair-share activities etc. to assess her students. What is her purpose with these activities and tests?
To modify instruction. Mrs. Lewis wants to find out all she can about her student's prior knowledge of a subject before planning her teaching unit. She does not want to bore her students by teaching something they already know or assume knowledge they may not have. Her pre-assessments help her plan her instruction to meet their needs.
The terms "heat" and "temperature" are often used interchangeably by students. Which is the correct definition for both?
Heat is the energy of moving molecules. Temperature describes how hot or cold a material is.
Materials should be organized to promote what?
Independence. Materials should be arranged to promote independence. This will allow students with special needs to participate in the general classroom activities.
Maria, a student in your third grade class, is struggling in her reading and content area subjects. You want to know which aspects of reading are giving her difficulty. Which type of assessment could you administer?
Diagnostic test. A diagnostic test will provide detailed information which will be useful in planning individual instruction. It is designed to tell whether a student has mastered individual skills. Formal, screening or norm-referenced tests are group tests and might not give you the information you need to help Maria.
Which of the following is Tier II of the Three Tier approach to RTI?
1. Core instruction for some students (at-risk).
2. Supplemental instruction for some students (at-risk).
2.Supplemental instruction for some students (at-risk). The three tiers associated with the Three-Tier approach to RTI are as follows: Tier I: Core instruction for all students. Tier II: Supplemental instruction for some students (at-risk). Tier III: Intensive instruction for individual students.
According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, children from 11-15 years of age usually do which of the following?
Think more in abstract terms rather than strictly using logic.
What two factors go into calculating an IQ score?
Mental age; chronological age.
Verbs used in learning objectives should be what?
Active Passive. Verbs do not have the same impact as active verbs. Learning objectives need to be measureable, and active verbs provide clear instruction.
Jeana is reading aloud for her teacher in the first part of her Informal Reading Inventory. She reads the above passage substituting "lunched" for "munched" and "man" for "woman". What type of miscues is she making?
Graphophonic. Goodman identifies three types of miscues. Graphophonic are those located within a word (miscue on letters, patterns etc.,) syntactic, those associated with sentence structure, and semantic or the meaning surrounding text. Jeana kept the meaning in lunched and man but read the letter cues incorrectly.
Your school has asked you to administer two reading evaluations to your students. You feel that the test are almost the same and wonder why the district wants your students to take both. Why might this be?
To check the concurrent validity of the tests. A test that reflects the curriculum taught has content validity. A test that conforms to real-world application has construct validity. Tests that predict future performance or success have predictive validity. Two tests that can be compared to see if the tests correlate have concurrent validity if they are given at the same time. If the two tests are administered concurrently and the scores are highly correlated, the test has validity. Perhaps the district is considering replacing an old test with the new.
Gina arrives in your classroom in November after you have given the standardized state test for reading. Her records show that the last time she was tested was at the beginning of the last school year. You want to know what her reading level is. What type of test might give you the most information?
An informal reading inventory. An IRI or running record type of test can include oral and silent reading, listening comprehension and reading comprehension components. It is easy to administer and gives much information for an individual child. Since the teacher administers it, she can also make observations to help her place the student properly.
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