Kinn's Medical Assistant Chapter 30 Nutrition and Health Promotion

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Nutrition and Health Promotion

Amino acids

The organic compounds that form the chief constituents of protein and are used by the body to build and repair tissues


a substance produced by the liver


Conditions that result in below normal intake of particular substances




The resistance of the skin To being grasped between the fingers and release

macular degeneration

A progressive deterioration of the portion of the retina called the macula lutea, resulting in loss of central vision

diabetes mellitus type 1

A disease in which the beta cells in the pancreas no longer produce insulin.

diabetes mellitus type 2

A disease in which the body is unable to use glucose for energy as a result of either inadequate insulin production in the pancreas or resistance to insulin on the cellular level.


the organic process by which food is converted into chemical substances that can be absorbed into the body


Abnormal condition of pouchlike herniations through the muscular layer of the colon.

free radicals

Compounds with at least one unpaired electron, which makes the compound unstable and highly reactive. Free radicals are believed to damage cell components, ultimately leading to cancer, heart disease, or other diseases.


Combined with, treated with, or exposed to hydrogen


A fatty acid and glycerol compound that combines with a protein molecule to form high-or-low to density lipoprotein


A grain found in some cereal products, in certain dietary supplements, and in certain bulk fiber laxatives; a water-soluble fiber

Registered Dietician (RD)

An individual with a minimum of a bachelor's degree in food and nutrition who is concerned with the maintenance and promotion of health and the treatment of diseases through diet.


Loss of bone density; lack of calcium intake is a major factor in its development


An excessive accumulation of body fat; defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher

neural tube defects

Any of a group of congenital anomalies involving the brain and spinal column that are cause by failure of the neural tube to close during embryonic development

Carbohydrates should account for what percentage of total calories consumed in one day


Total Cholesterol


Liquid Diet

Clear Liquid; broth tea and gelatin

Soft or Light Diet

Status Post-op; no raw vegetables or spices

Mechanical Soft Diet

Regimented diet that is chopped, ground, or pureed

Bland Diet

Dietary Restrictions; used for problems with Gastrointestinal problems. None gas forming.


Bananas, Rice, Applesauce, Tea. Used to nourish after having G.I. problems (upset stomach). Potatoes can be substituted in place of rice if boiled.

20 Amino Acids

The amount of amino acids that are necessary for normal growth


an example of an incomplete protein

Amount of daily calories needed from proteins

18%; 91 gms. needed per day

Saturated Fats

denser and heavier than other fats

Dietary Fats/Lipids

provide fatty acids and are needed for absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A D E and K


Biproducts created by humans; when polyunsaturated oils are solidified by the addition of Hydrogen


Storage; a form of fuel used to back up carbohydrates as available energy




the process in which nutrients are used


the building phase in which smaller molecules such as Amino Acids are combined to form larger molecules such as Proteins


the breaking-down phase in which larger molecules are broken down and converted into smaller units

Basal Metabolism

the amount of energy needed to maintain essential body functions


Basal Metabolic Rate


the organic and inorganic chemicals in food that supply the energy and raw materials for cellular activites

the makeup of nutrients

carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamins, minerals, and water


Multiple functions that attempt to keep the body's functions in balance; a steady state


Binging and Purging

Anorexia Nervosa


Stress Management

Stress stimulates the fight or flight response. Symptoms of stress: headache, HTN, diarrhea


amount of calories needed per day


must provide a source of fuel or energy. Also supplies minerals to build and repair tissues. Regulate metabolic process


rates carbohydrate food on a scale from slowest to fastest effects of blood glucose levels. The lower the Glycemic Index value of the food the longer it takes to raise the patient's blood glucose level. One fo the scales is based on 100 glycemic units + to the number of units in a glucose tablet.

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