33 terms

Hardware & Software Vocab Quiz

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Bug
A flaw in software that causes the program to malfunction or freeze when it encounters specific situations.
Algorithm
A procedure, rule, or formula for solving a problem. A computer program is essentially an elaborate algorithm that goes through a series of steps to arrive at a specific outcome.
Source
Code code written by programmer, usually in a high-level language
Object
Code - actual code run by the computer (in ones and zeroes)
GUI
(Graphical User interface) - a method of controlling software using onscreen icons, menus, dialog boxes, and objects that can be moved or resized, usually with a pointing device such as a mouse
Interface
the design of a program that determines how a user interacts with software. The two most common interfaces are the graphic user interface and the text interface, which consists of typing command words.
Editor
used to write software code. Editors can be language specific so that it gives special formatting and colors to the code
Debugger
A special program used to find errors (bugs) in other programs. A debugger allows a programmer to stop a program at any point and examine and change the values of variables.
Operating
System Serves as a bridge between the computer hardware and application software with which the computer user works. Windows, Linux, Unix, and Mac Os X Leopard are all examples of operating systems
Application
Software that performs a specific function. Word processors, database programs, Web browsers, and image-editing programs are all applications.
Types
of languages
Machine
language Series of codes, represented by ones and zeroes, used to communicate directly with the internal instructions of the PC's microprocessor
Assembly
language Uses simple commands to supply step-by-step instructions for the processor to carry out. Directly manipulates the values contained in those memory scratch pads in the microprocessor called registers.
High
level language software code written with recognizable words that more closely resemble conventional languages such as English.
Converters
from Source Code to Object Code
Assembler
converts from assembly language to machine code
Compiler
converts from a high-level language to machine code. Converts the entire program at once into an executable file. Operating system can then run the executable file.
interpreter
converts source code on the fly into instructions the computer can understand. Converts and executes each line in succession rather than all at once as a compiler does.
Memory
Internal storage areas in the computer. The term memory identifies data storage that comes in the form of chips (A temporary storage area for information and applications), and the word storage is used for memory that exists on tapes or disks. Moreover, the term memory is usually used as a shorthand for physical memory, which refers to the actual chips capable of holding data.
bit
Binary digit. Smallest unit of data. 0 or 1
byte
8 bits; Holds 1 character of data. 256 possible different values
MB
When spelled MB, short for megabyte (1,000,000 or 1,048,576 bytes, depending on the context).
Gigabyte
2 to the 30th power (1,073,741,824) bytes. One gigabyte is equal to 1,024 megabytes. Gigabyte is often abbreviated as G or GB.
CD-ROM
Short for Compact Disc-Read-Only Memory, a type of optical disk capable of storing large amounts of data -- up to 1GB, although the most common size is 650MB (megabytes).
CD-R
Compact Disc Recordable Can be used once. CD-RW can be rewritten/ erased and reused. Speed of CD drive: 1. How fast it can write to a CD-R 24X 2. How fast it can write to a CD-RW 10X 3. How fast it can read- 40X
DVD
Short for digital versatile disc or digital video disc, a type of optical disk technology similar to the CD-ROM. A DVD holds a minimum of 4.7GB of data.
bus
A collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of a computer to another.. The internal bus that connects all the internal computer components to the CPU and main memory. Every bus has a clock speed measured in MHz. A fast bus allows data to be transferred faster, which makes applications run faster.
CPU
Abbreviation of central processing unit, The CPU is the brains of the computer. On personal computers and small workstations, the CPU is housed in a single chip called a microprocessor.
Motherboard
The main circuit board of a microprocessor. The motherboard contains the connectors for attaching additional boards. Typically, the motherboard contains the CPU, BIOS, memory, mass storage interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots, and all the controllers required to control standard peripheral devices, such as the display screen, keyboard, and disk drive. Collectively, all these chips that reside on the motherboard are known as the motherboard's chipset
peripheral
A computer device, such as a CD-ROM drive or printer, that is not part of the essential computer, i.e., the memory and microprocessor. Peripheral devices can be external -- such as a mouse, keyboard, printer, monitor, external Zip drive or scanner -- or internal, such as a CD-ROM drive, CD-R drive or internal modem. Internal peripheral devices are often referred to as integrated peripherals. Also see I/O.
RAM
Random Access Memory - working memory for the computer
Clock
Speed Also called clock rate, the speed at which a microprocessor executes instructions. Every computer contains an internal clock that regulates the rate at which instructions are executed and synchronizes all the various computer components. Clock speeds are expressed in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz ((GHz).
USB
Universal Serial Bus; An external bus standard that supports data transfer rates of 12Mbps. (megabits/sec.) Connects computers to peripheral devices. USB 2.