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Chapter 5: Changes on the Western Frontier
Terms in this set (39)
the grassland extended through the west central portion of the United States
The first state with the discovery of gold in 1858 that drew miners from all regions
Massacre at Sand Creek
A tragic event in 1864 when Cheyenne tribe thought they were under the protection of the government, returned to Colorado Reserve for the winter and General Curtis sent a telegram stating his dislike for the natives moved his troops to the reserve and killed 500 women/children and 200 warriors.
The Bozeman Trail
Ran directly through Sioux hunting grounds in Bighorn mountains. Chief Red Cloud unsuccessfully appealed to the government about ending settlement on this ground. Crazy Horse ambushed Captain Fetterman at Lodge Trail Ridge. Over 80 men killed. Native called this "The Battle of Hundred Slain" Settlers called it "Fetterman Massacre"
Treaty of Fort Laramie
Where the Sioux agreed to live on reservation along the Missouri river. It temporarily provided halt to welfare, built more conflict between Settlers and Natives. But leader Sitting Bull never signed the agreement. Leads to the Red River War.
leader of Sioux tribe.
4 years of the Treaty of Fort Laramie, miners began searching, Sioux and two other tribes protested.
In 1874 he reported Black Hills had gold from the grass roots down.
Custer's Last Stand
June 1876 he and his troops reached the Bighorn river and natives were ready for them. within an hour all of his men and himself were dead.
a plan under which native Americans would give up their beliefs and way of life and become apart of the white culture
The Dawes Act
1887 Congress was aiming to "Americanize" the Natives. This broke up reservations and gave some of this land to individual natives 160 acres for families and 80 for single people. Sold remainder of land to settlers and use income to help natives buy farm implements. Natives never received money for these lands.
The Battle of the Wounded Knee
Sioux suffered poverty and disease. In desperation they preformed a Ghost Dance ritual to honor a prophet who told them their lives would be restored. Dance was rapidly spread, alarmed the military leaders and they set out to arrest Sitting Bull. In December 350 starving and freezing Sioux were rounded up were taken to a creek in South Dakota. They then were forced to give up their weapons, a shot was fired and 300 natives were slaughtered and this brought Indian wars to a sad bitter end.
they were sturdy, short-tempered breeds accustomed to dry grasslands of southern spain
were the first to wear spurs, chaps, and to eat horse. This is where they originated cowboys from.
Cattlemen found a convenient route. Created to make the journey less for cowboys to travel with cattle.
the major cattle route from San Antonio, Texas through Oklahoma and Kansas.
The settlers migrated to this region to begin farming.
Offering 160 acres of land free to any citizen or intend citizen who was head of the household.
African Americans who moved from the post-reconstruction South to Kansas.
This was created due to the closing of the frontier by the census bureau who declared that the country no longer had a continuous frontier line.
A stovepipe jutting from the ground. Pioneers lived in such made from sides of ravines or small hills.
Those who lived in broad flat plains often made freestanding houses from blocks of prairie turf. Warm in the winter and cool in the summer.
Invented a steel plow that could slice through heavy soil
He began the mass production of a reaping machine.
The government wanted to support farmer's education so they gave the federal land to the states to help finance agricultural colleges.
Enormous single crop spreads of 15,000-50,0000 acres.
Worth less than hard money. Could not be exchanged for silver or gold. Placed the farmers in more debt as they died out.
Required the government to pay back 2-4 million worth of silver each month although it wasn't enough to help the farmers.
Oliver Hudson Kelley
To push effectively for reforms, he started the Grange.
its original purpose was to provide a social outlet and education for isolated farm families.
The Grange Battle Plan
included teaching members how to organize, set up cooperatives, and sponsor state legislation to regulate railroads.
many others who sympathized with farmers. sent lectures from town to town to educate people about lower interest rates on loans, and governments control over railroads and banks. Membership grew over 4 million in the south and west together.
the movement of the people
Economic reforms proposed included an increase in the money supply, a graduated tax, a federal loan program and a 8 hour work day.
The Panic of 1893
In 1893 the railroads began to go bankrupt. The price of silver went down. 15,000 business and banks collapsed. And 3 million people were unemployed
a monetary system in which the government would give citizens either gold or silver in exchange for paper currency or checks. (silverties)
backing dollars solely with gold. (gold bugs)
Democratic Party President
William Jennings Bryan
Republican Party President; won the election of 1896.
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