103 terms

Anatomy and Physiology of Communication Exam 1

Epithelial tissue
Surface covering of the body; roles: barrier against hostile agents (infectious organisms), prevents dehydration and fluid loss
Connective tissue
Binds together and supports tissues and organs
Protective function of connective tissue
Fibroblasts: production of extra cellular matrix; macrophages: collect waste or dead tissue; lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes (generate/secrete antibodies) and T-lymphocytes (stimulated by viruses, seek and destroy viruses); mast cells (inflammatory response against irritation)
Three types of muscle tissue
Striated/skeletal (voluntary); smooth (involuntary); and cardiac (involuntary)
Nervous tissue (neurons)
Communicative tissue, transmits information
Ligaments (bind)
Bone to bone; bone to cartilage
Tendons (attach)
Muscle to bone; muscle to cartilage
Rigid skeletal support; protection of organs and soft tissue
Union of bone to bone or bone to cartilage
Fibrous joints
Bind immobile bodies
Cartilaginous joints
Cartilage is primary joining function between two bones
Synovial joints
Synovial fluid for lubrication
Aggregates of contractive muscle fibers with a common function
Major force for moving structures
Oppose or reverse a movement
Isometric contractions
No change in length during contraction (no movement)
Isotonic contractions
Changes length during contraction; muscle lengthening (eccentric) and muscle shortening (concentric)
Carry nerve impulses AWAY from organs towards the central nervous system (sensory neurons)
Carry nerve impulses from the CNS (central nervous system) towards organs
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brain stem, spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Cranial nerves, spinal nerves
Gas exchange occurs within the
as air pressure in the lungs ____, air enters the lungs to equalize the pressure
as air pressure in the lungs ____, air flows out of the lungs to equalize pressure
Boyle's law: if volume increases then pressure ____
Bony thorax; superior border, inferior border, posterior border, lateral border, anterior border
Superior: first rib and clavicle
Inferior: 12th rib (and diaphragm)
Posterior: vertebrae and ribs
Lateral: ribs
Anterior: sternum
Vertebral column (5 divisions)
7 cervical vertebrae; 12 toracic vertebrae; 5 lumbar; 5 sacral; 4 coccygeal (coccyx)
Vertebral foramen
passage for spinal cord
Intervertebral foramen
exit for spinal nerves
Transverse processes
point of attachment for muscles and ligaments
Transverse foramina
passage for vertebral artery
Superior and inferior articular facets
mating surfaces for vertebrae; limit anterior-posterior movement; permit limited rotary and rocking motion
Cervical vertebrae: number, C1 and C2 functions
7 vertebrae, C1 (Atlas) is the uppermost and supports skull rotation; C2 (Axis) supports skull pivoting
Thoracic vertebrae function
12 vertebrae; basis for the respiratory framework, posterior point of attachment for the ribs
Lumbar vertebrae function
5 vertebrae; reflects the stress of lifting and walking; direct or indirect attachment for back and abdominal muscles and posterior fibers of diaphragm
Sacral (sacrum) vertebrae function
5 vertebrae; a fused mass, provides passage for the sacral nerves
4 vertebrae; composed of fused coccygeal vertebrae; articulates with the inferior sacrum
Pelvic girdle
skeletal support for lower extremities; includes ilium, sacrum, pubic bone, ischium
Pectoral girdle
skeletal support for upper extremities; includes scapula and clavicle
point of attachment for a lot of muscles, facilitates flexible upper body movement, only skeletal attachment is the clavicle
attached to superior sternum and runs laterally to join with scapula
Ribs and rib cage function
protection for heart and lungs; basis for respiration -- move up and down to expand and contract to let air in and out. Also important for protection of heart and lungs
Number of ribs
Attachment of ribs
attached posteriorly to vertebral column and all but lower two attached at sternum
True ribs
direct attachment to sternum via cartilaginous portion
False ribs
attached to the sternum by cartilage; chondral portion runs superiorly to attach to sternum
Floating ribs
only attached to vertebral column
manubrium sterni (attachment for clavicle and first rib), manubrosternal angle (attachment for second rib), corpus (direct attachment for ribs 3-7), Xiphoid process
Visceral thorax function
safeguards lungs against pollutants, warms and humidifies air as it enters the lungs
Upper respiratory tract components
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx
Lower respiratory tract components
trachea, primary bronchi, lungs
Nasal cavity function
warming, moistening and filtering air, cilia and mucus trap and remove dust and pathogens
Passage of air when breathing through nose
Nasal cavity -> nasopharynx -> oropharynx -> laryngopharynx -> larynx
Passage of air when breathing through mouth
Oral cavity -> oropharynx -> laryngopharyx -> larynx
Larynx anatomy
Lower respiratory tract -- first 9 divisions
conductive zone; designed to transport gas between environment and lungs; trachea, primary bronchus, right and left lungs, bronchiole, terminal bronchiole, respiratory bronchiole
Lower respiratory tract -- final 7 divisions
respiratory zone, site of gas exchange; respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct, alveolar sac
made up of 16-20 hyaline cartilage rings; bifurcates (divides into two) to become main stem bronchi; cartilage opens posteriorly to allow for increase and decrease of the diameter of the tracheal rings
Main stem bronchi (L and R)
Right side forms 20-30 degree angle; left side forms 45-55 degree angle; made up for hyaline cartilage
Respiratory zone
Respiratory bronchioles (site of gas exchange); alveolar ducts; alveoli
Alveoli function
Real work of respiration due to architecture and relationship with vascular supply
Type I membranous pneumocyte (alveolar lining)
Flat cells directly involved in gas exchange
Type II cuboidal cells (alveolar lining)
Source of surfactant, a substance that reduces surface tension and keeps alveoli from collapsing
A substance that reduces surface tension
Alveolar wall
Extraordinarily thin; promotes rapid transfer of gas exchange
Alveoli are surrounded by
Capillaries, which help it have a rich blood supply for gas exchange
Capillaries in the lungs are the _______ dense in the body
Describe the process of gas exchange during the respiration process
Diffusion takes place in the respiration process; oxygen diffuses into blood stream at the capillaries, carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveoli
When clusters of alveoli become a single sac — the surface area for gas exchange is reduced; lack of oxygen results in the person taking deeper and deeper breaths to compensate, resulting in "barrel chest" (expanded thorax)
What is "barrel chest"?
When a person has emphysema, lack of oxygen results in the person taking deeper breaths to compensate
Describe the protective mechanisms for airway protection
Nasal and Oral cavities:
1. Nostril hairs filter out particles greater than 10 microns;
2. Moist mucous membrane provides additional protection (boogers)

Respiratory passage:
3. Beating epithelia beat over 1,000 times/minute driving material upward to be expelled
4. Protects lungs by warming and humidifying air

Lymphatic system:
5. Final cleaning of particles
Describe how the lungs are protected (mechanism/structure)
Segmentation of lungs by separate pleural linings — penetration of lining in one lung does not affect function of other lung
__________ separates the abdomen and thorax
Lungs and thoracic wall are completely covered with ___________________. Lungs are encased in _________________. And Thoracic wall lined with _____________________.
Pleural lining; visceral pleurae; parietal pleurae
Visceral and parietal pleurae are _________ with each other, which helps what
Continuous; allows lungs to follow movement of the thorax
When you ___________, the diaphragm contracts and the thoracic cavity _________
Inhale; expands
When you _______, the diaphragm relaxes and the thoracic cavity ___________
Exhale; reduces
Phrenic nerve
Innervate diaphragm
Vagus nerves
Innervate heart and abdominal viscera; mediate cough reflex and control of airway diameter; nerve supply for the lungs
Quiet inspiration
Requires only one muscle
Forced inspiration
Requires many muscles
Primary muscle for quiet inspiration
Primary thoracic muscle
Diaphragm separates ________ and ____________. It is attached to the ___________________ and the _______________________. It is innervated from the ___________________.
Abdominal and thoracic cavities; attached to the inferior boundary of the rib cage and the xyphoid process; innervated from the phrenic nerve
Aortic hiatus
Opening for descending abdominal aorta
Esophageal hiatus
Opening of the esophagus
Foramen vena cava
Opening for inferior vena cava
How does air enter the lungs when the diaphragm contracts?
Central tendon is pulled down and forward, thorax expands in the vertical dimension, lungs expand and air enters
Muscles for forced inspiration
Accessory thoracic muscles
How air enters the lungs when the accessory muscles contract
Rib cage elevates, thorax expands in the anterior/posterior dimension, lungs expand and air enters
External intercostals
Elevate the rib cage and provide unity and mobility
Internal intercostals
Primarily used in expiration but a portion active during forced inspiration, deep to external intercostals
Levator Costarum function (Brevis and Longus)
Elevate ribs on contraction; brevis (brief; short), longus (long) has a greater effect on elevation
Serratus posterior superior function
Elevation of rib cage; more lateral insertion provides significant enhancement for lifting ribs
Erector spinae
Additional support for respiration by stabilizing and moving the vertebral column; lies along the vertebral column
Accessory neck muscles function
Source of stability and control for neck tension and extension; related to whole-body stability required for speech
Sternocleidomastoid function
Elevates sternum and rib cage, when left and right are contracted separately, head will rotate toward the side of contraction, when left and right are simultaneously contracted, the sternum and anterior rib cage elevate
Clavicular breathing (chest breathing), when does it happen and how
Used when under stress or to compensate for respiratory distress, also a byproduct of sedentary lifestyle; thorax expansion arises primarily from rib cage expansion via sternocleidomastoid (rather than diaphragm contraction) and results in inadequate gas exchange and reduced vitality, increased risk of disease
Scaleni anterior, middle, posterior functions
Provide stability to head and facilitate rotation; have potential of increasing the vertical dimension of thorax
Anterior scalene function, origin, insertion
Elevates first rib; origin: transverse processes of C3-C6; insertion: superior surface of first rib
Middle scalene function, origin, insertion
Elevates first rib; origin: transverse processes of C2-C7; insertion: superior surface of first rib
Accessory muscles of upper arm and shoulder function
Assist external intercostals in elevating the thorax; potential to increase anterior-posterior dimension
Pectoralis major
Large, upper chest fan-shaped muscle, elevates sternum and increases transverse dimension of the rib cage
Pectoralis minor
Function: elevates rib cage