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The French Revolution- Modern World History
Szafasz- only lectures 1-3
Terms in this set (37)
What were the 1700s know as?
The Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason
What was the Enlightenment?
The idea that reason and science could logically explain human nature
What are philosophes?
Thinkers of the Enlightenment
What did John Locke believe?
People are born free and equal- have the rights to life, liberty, and property- and the government should protect these rights
What did Thomas Hobbes, or "Leviathan", believe?
All humans are naturally selfish and wicked and need a strong ruler to govern them- wanted a social contract
What is a social contract?
A government where people agree to give total control to a monarch because people acted in their own self interest
What did Denis Diderot do?
Created the encyclopedia, 28 volumes in 21 years
What did Voltaire fight for?
Tolerance of freedom of speech, religion, and religion
What did Wollstonecraft believe in?
Women have rights and should have equal education to men
What did Montesquieu do?
Created the concept of separation of powers in government, so one branch cannot overpower the others
What did Rousseau believe?
Civilization corrupted people's natural goodness, best type of government was direct democracy
What did Beccaria believe in?
Criminal justice, accused should have rights, no cruel and unusual punishment(torture), and everyone should receive a fair and speedy trial
What is an absolute monarch?
Kings or queens who held all of the power within their state's boundaries, controlled every aspect of life
Who was King Louis XIV (14th)?
"The Sun King", large patron of the arts, entered France into multiple wars
How long did King Louis XIV reign?
72 years (became king at 4yrs old)
Before the Palace of Versailles was a palace, what was it?
A hunting lodge
What was the First Estate?
The clergy(priests, nuns, and monks), 1% of population, not taxed, owned 10% of the land
What was the Second Estate?
The nobility/wealthy landowners/monarchy, 2% of population, held highest positions, not taxed, owned 25% of the land
What was the Third Estate/the Bourgeoisie?
Commoners(everyone else in France: peasants, poor farmers, merchants, bankers, tradesmen), 97% of population, paid 100% of taxes, owned 65% of the land
What were the poor social conditions of France?
Raising the price of food and rent, too much interference from the government, very wide gap between the rich and poor
Why was there so much debt in France?
Debt was inherited by monarchs, they kept spending more and more money
Who was King Louis XVI (16th)?
Reigned during the French Revolution; indecisive, weak-willed, conservative attitude; good intentions, well-liked, average intelligence; husband of Marie Antoinette
Who was Marie Antoinette?
Married to King Louis XVI, spent tons of money of Versailles, jewelry, clothing/fashion
What did the Estates General meet for and how long had it been since they last met?
Have not met since 1614 (175 years), called to discuss France's financial problems(debt) on May 5, 1789
What was the main question the Estates General had to solve?
Who pays the taxes?
How did the Estates General decide to solve the problem of taxes?
Past Rule- each estate meet, one vote per estate
Third Estate wanted majority rules
Decision: use old rules
Third Estate refused to obey
What is the National Assembly?
A group that the Third Estate formed after the Estates General
What did the National Assembly do?
Drafted a constitution that limited the power of the king, wanted to meet at Versailles but were locked out and met with troops sent by King Louis XVI, met at a local tennis court
What is the Tennis Court Oath?
A document created by the National Assembly that guaranteed personal rights
What were the three groups of the Third Estate that formed after the National Assembly went into effect?
Moderates: no extreme views of change
Conservatives: felt the revolution had gone far enough, wanted to go back to the traditional approach
Radicals: more drastic changes that opposed
What happened on July 14, 1789?
The Bastille was raided by 8,000 angry men and women, they were looking for weapons and gunpowder, they dismantled it brick by brick, cut of the heads of the guards and carried them through the streets of Paris
What was the Bastille?
A prison and armory located in Paris, a glaring symbol of the government's harsh policies
What had begun as effect of the storming of the Bastille?
The French Revolution- peasant rebellions broke out all over France and the old regime was being dismantled
What were the colors of the new flag and what did they mean/represent?
Red, white, and blue
Blue and Red: colors of Paris
White: color of the Royal House of Bourbon
What did the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen" say?
Dealt with basic human rights and political powers:
-men are born free and equal before the law
-granted freedom of speech, press, and religion
Who did the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen" NOT apply to?
Women (big surprise there)
What did Olympe de Gouges do?
Write the "Declaration of Rights of Woman and Citizenship" (National Assembly rejected it)
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THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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