Physical Therapy Muscles

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iliocostalis
O: iliac crest and sacrum via
the erector spinae
aponeurosis; then angles
of the ribs as the muscle
ascends the trunk
I: angles of the ribs 6 levels
superior to their origin;
then to TPs of cervical
spine
A:extends and laterally
bends the trunk and neck
N: dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C4-S5
latissimus dorsi
O: vertebral spines from T7
to the sacrum, thoracolumbar fascia, lower 3 or 4 ribs, inferior angle of the scapula
I: anterior humerus in floor
of the intertubercular
groove
A: extends, adducts and
rotates the arm medially
N: thoracodorsal nerve
levator scapulae
O: transverse processes of
C1-C4 vertebrae
I: medial border of the
scapula from the superior
angle to the spine
A: elevates the scapula
N: dorsal scapular nerve; the
upper part of the muscle
receives branches of C3 &
C4
longissimus
O:erector spinae
aponeurosis; then
transverse processes as
the muscle ascends the
trunk
I: transverse process, 6
levels superior to their
origin; and mastoid
process of the temporal
bone
A: extends and laterally
bends the trunk, neck and
head
N: dorsal primary rami of spinal
nerves C1-S1
multifidus
O: posterior sacrum, PSIS;
then from TPs as the
muscle ascends the trunk;
then articular processes in
c-spine
I: spinous processes 2
vertebral levels (deep MF)
and 4 vertebral
levels(superfiical MF)
superior to their origin
A: extend and laterally bend
trunk and neck, rotate to
opposite side; stabilizes
individual vertebral
segments
N: dorsal primary rami of spinal
nerves C1-L5
obliquus capitis inferior
O: spinous process of the
axis
I: transverse process of atlas
A: rotates the head to the
same side on the
atlantoaxial joint
N: suboccipital nerve (DPR of
C1) o
obliquus capitis superior
O: transverse process of
atlas
I: occipital bone above
inferior nuchal line
A: extends the head, rotates
the head to the same side
N: suboccipital nerve (DPR of
C1)
rectus capitis posterior major
O: spinous process of axis
I: inferior nuchal line
A: extends the head, rotate
to same side
N: suboccipital nerve (DPR of
C1)
rectus capitis posterior minor
O: posterior tubercle of
I: atlas inferior nuchal line medially
A: extends the head
N: suboccipital nerve (DPR of
C1)
rhomboideus major
O: spines of vertebrae T2-T5
I: medial border of the
scapula inferior to the
spine of the scapula
A: retracts, elevates and
rotates the scapula
inferiorly
N: dorsal scapular nerve
rhomboideus minor
O: inferior end of the
ligamentum nuchae,
spines of vertebrae C7
and T1
I: medial border of the
scapula at the root of the
spine of the scapula
A: retracts, elevates and
rotates the scapula
inferiorly
N: dorsal scapular nerve
anterior scalene
O: transverse processes of
vertebrae C3-C6
A: 1st rib
I: elevates the first rib;
flexes and laterally bends
the neck
N: C5-C7
middle scalene
O: transverse processes of
vertebrae C2-C7
I: 1st rib
A: elevates the first rib;
flexes and laterally bends
the neck
N: C3-C8
posterior scalene
O: transverse processes of
vertebrae C5-C7
I: 2nd rib
A: elevates the second rib;
flexes and laterally bends
the neck
N: C7-C8
semispinalis
O: Cervicis TPs T6 to T1;
capitis: TPs from T6 to C4;
I: cervicis: SPs 4-6 vertebrae
above origin ending at C2
SP; capitis:posterior skull
between nuchal lines;
A: extends the
trunk/neck/head and
laterally bends them and
rotates to the opposite
side
N: dorsal primary rami of spinal
nerves C1-T12
spinalis
O: spinous processes at
inferior vertebral levels
I: spinous processes 4-8
superior vertebral levels
and base of the skull
A: extends and laterally
bends trunk and neck
N: dorsal primary rami of spinal
nerves C2-L3
splenius
O: ligamentum nuchae and
spines C7-T6
I: cervicis: posterior
tubercles of C1-C2
vertebrae;capitis: mastoid
process & lateral aspect of
superior nuchal line
A: extends and laterally
bends neck and head;
rotates head to same side
N: dorsal primary rami of spinal
nerves C2-C6
trapezius
O: medial third of the
superior nuchal line,
external occipital
protuberance,
ligamentum nuchae,
spinous processes of
vertebrae C7-T12
I: lateral third of the
clavicle, medial side of the
acromion and the upper
crest of the scapular
spine, tubercle of the
scapular spine
A: elevates or depresses the
scapula (depending on
which part of the muscle
contracts); rotates the
scapula superiorly;
retracts scapula; extends
head on neck
N: motor: spinal accessory (XI),
proprioception: C3-C4
abductor digiti minimi (foot)
O: lateral side of the
tuberosity of the
calcaneus
I: lateral side of the base of
the proximal phalanx of
the 5th digit
A: abducts the 5th toe;
flexes the
N: metatarsophalageal joint
lateral plantar nerve
abductor hallucis
O: medial side of the
tuberosity of calcaneus
I: medial side of the base of
the proximal phalanx of
the great toe (hallux)
A: abducts the great toe;
flexes the metatarsophalageal joint
N: medial plantar nerve
adductor brevis
O: inferior pubic ramus
I: linea aspera
A: adducts hip
N: anterior division of the
obturator nerve
adductor hallucis
O: oblique head: bases of
metatarsals 2-4;
transverse head: heads of
metatarsals 3-5
I: lateral side of base of the
proximal phalanx of the
great toe
A: adducts the great toe
(moves it toward midline
of the foot; i.e.toward the
2nd digit)
N lateral plantar nerve
adductor longus
O: medial portion of the
superior pubic ramus
I: linea aspera of the femur A: adducts hip
N: anterior division of the
obturator nerve
adductor magnus
O: Inferior pubic ramus and
ischial tuberosity
(hamstring part)
I: linea aspera of the femur;
thehamstring part inserts
on the adductor tubercle
of the femur
A: adducts, flexes, and
medially rotates the
femur; extends the femur
hamstring part)
N: posterior division of the
obturator nerve (adductor
part); tibial division of the
sciatic nerve (hamstring
part)
biceps femoris
O: long head: ischial
tuberosity; short head:
lateral lip of the linea
aspera
I: head of fibula
A: extends the thigh, flexes
the leg
N: long head: tibial division of
the sciatic nerve; short
head: common fibular
division of the sciatic nerve
dorsal interosseous
O: shafts of adjacent
metatarsal bones
I: bases of the proximal
phalanges for digit 2 (both
sides) & digits 3,4 (lateral
side); extensor hood
A: abduct digits 2-4 (move
these digits away from
midline as defined by a
plane passing through the
2nd digit); flex the MTP
and extend the
interphalangeal joints of
those digits
N: lateral plantar nerve dorsal metatarsal
extensor digitorum brevis
O: superolateral surface of
the calcaneus
I: dorsal middle phalanges 2-
4
A: extends toes 2-4
N: deep fibular (peroneal)
nerve
extensor digitorum longus
O: lateral condyle of the
tibia, anterior surface of
the fibula, interosseous
membrane
I: dorsum of digits 2-5 via
extensor expansions
(central slip inserts on
base of middle phalanx,
lateral slips on base of
distal phalanx)
A: extends the
metatarsophalangeal,
proximal interphalangeal
and distal interphalangeal
joints of the lateral 4 toes
N: deep fibular (peroneal)
nerve
extensor hallucis brevis
O: superolateral surface of
the calcaneus
I: dorsum of base of
proximal phalanx of the
great toe
A: extends the great toe
N: deep fibular (peroneal)
nerve
extensor hallucis longus
O: middle half of the anterior
surface of the fibula and
the interosseous
membrane
I: base of the distal phalanx
of the great toe
A: extends the
metatarsophalangeal
interphalangeal joints of
the great toe
N: deep fibular (peroneal)
nerve
flexor digiti minimi brevis
O: base of 5th metatarsal
bone
I: lateral side of base of
proximal phalanx of 5th
digit
A: flexes the
metatarsophalangeal joint
of the 5th digit
N: lateral plantar nerve
flexor digitorum brevis
O: tuberosity of the
calcaneus
I: base of the middle
phalanx of digits 2-5 after
splitting to allow passage
of the flexor digitorum
longus tendons
A: flexes the
metatarsophalangeal &
proximal interphalangeal
joints of digits 2-5
N: medial plantar nerve
flexor digitorum longus
O: middle half of the
posterior surface of the
tibia
I: bases of the distal
phalanges of digits 2-5
A: flexes the
metatarsophalangeal,
proximal interphalangeal
and distal interphalangeal
joints of digits 2-5; plantar
flexes the foot
N: tibial nerve
flexor hallucis brevis
O: cuboid, lateral cuneiform
I: medial and lateral sides of
base of the proximal
phalanx of the great toe
A: flexes the
metatarsophalangeal joint
of the great toe
N: medial plantar nerve
flexor hallucis longus
O: lower 2/3 of the posterior
surface of the fibula
I: base of the distal phalanx
of the great toe
A: flexes the
metatarsophalangeal and
proximal interphalangeal
joints of the great toe;
plantar flexes the foot
N: tibial nerve
gastrocnemius
O: medial head: medial
femoral condyle; lateral
head: lateral femoral
condyle
I: dorsum of the calcaneus
via the calcaneal
(Achilles') tendon
A: flexes leg; plantar flexes
N: foot tibial nerve
gluteus maximus
O: posterior gluteal line,
posterior surface of
sacrum and coccyx,
sacrotuberous ligament
I: upper fibers: iliotibial
tract; lowermost fibers:
gluteal tuberosity of the
femur
A: extends the femur;
laterally rotates and
abducts the femur
N: inferior gluteal nerve
gluteus medius
O: external surface of the
ilium between the
posterior and anterior
gluteal lines
I: greater trochanter of the
femur
A: abducts and medially
rotates the femur
N: superior gluteal nerve
gluteus minimus
O: external surface of the
ilium between the
anterior and inferior
gluteal lines
I: greater trochanter of the
femur
A: abducts and medially
rotates the femur
N: superior gluteal nerve
gracillis
O: pubic symphysis and the
inferior pubic ramus
I: medial surface of the tibia
(via pes anserinus)
A: adducts the thigh, flexes
and medially rotates the
thigh, flexes the leg
N: anterior division of the
obturator nerve
iliacus
O: iliac fossa and iliac crest;
ala of sacrum
I: lesser trochanter of the
femur
A: flexes the thigh; if the
thigh is fixed it flexes the
pelvis on the thigh
N: femoral nerve
iliopsoas
O: iliac fossa; bodies and
transverse processes of
lumbar vertebrae
I: lesser trochanter of the
femur
A: flexes the thigh; flexes
and laterally bends the
lumbar vertebral column
N: branches of the ventral
primary rami of spinal
nerves L2-L4; branches of
the femoral nerve
inferior gemellus
o: ischial tuberosity
I: greater trochanter via
obturator internus tendon
A: laterally rotates and
abducts the femur
N: nerve to the quadratus
femoris m.
lumbricals (foot)
O: medial side of tendons of
the flexor digitorum
longus
I: medial side of the
extensor hood of digits 2-
5
A: flex the
metatarsophalangeal
joint, extend the proximal
interphalangeal & distal
interphalangeal joints of
digits 2-5
N: medial (1st) lumbrical:
medial plantar nerve; lateral
three lumbricals: lateral
plantar nerve
obturator externus
O: the external surface of
the obturator membrane
and the superior and
inferior pubic rami
I: trochanteric fossa of the
femur
A: laterally rotates the thigh N: obturator nerve
obturator internus
O: the internal surface of the
obturator membrane I: greater trochanter
A: laterally rotates and
abducts the thigh
N: nerve to the obturator
internus m.
pectineus
O: pecten of the pubis
I: pectineal line of the femur A: adducts, flexes, and
medially rotates the thigh
N: femoral nerve and possibly
the anterior division of the
obturator nerve
peroneus brevis
O: lower one third of the
lateral surface of the
fibula
I: tuberosity of the base of
the 5th metatarsal
A: (plantar flexes) and
everts the foot
N: superficial fibular (peroneal)
nerve
peroneus longus
O: upper two/thirds of the
lateral surface of the
fibula
I: after crossing the plantar
surface of the foot deep
to the intrinsic muscles, it
inserts on the medial
cuneiform and the base of
the 1st metatarsal bone
A: (plantar flexes) and
everts the foot
N: superficial fibular (peroneal)
nerve
piriformis
O: anterior surface of sacrum
I: upper border of greater
trochanter of femur
A: laterally rotates and
abducts thigh
N: nerve to piriformis
plantar interosseous
O: base and medial side of
metatarsals 3-5
I: bases of proximal
phalanges and extensor
hood of digits 3-5
A: adduct digits 3-5 (move
these digits toward the
midline of the foot as
defined by the second
digit),flex
metatarsophalangeal and
extend interphalangeal
joints of digits 3-5
N: lateral plantar nerve
popliteus
O: lateral condyle of the
femur
I: posterior surface of the
tibia above soleal line
A: rotates the leg medially
(with the foot planted, it
rotates the thigh laterally)
N: tibial nerve
psoas major
O: bodies and transverse
processes of lumbar
vertebrae
I: lesser trochanter of femur
(with iliacus) via iliopsoas
tendon
A: flexes the thigh; flexes &
laterally bends the lumbar
vertebral column
N: branches of the ventral
primary rami of spinal
nerves L2-L4
psoas minor
O: bodies of the T12 & L1
vertebrae
I: lesser trochanter of femur
(with iliacus) via iliopsoas
tendon
A: flexes the thigh; flexes &
laterally bends the lumbar
vertebral column
N: branches of the ventral
primary rami of spinal
nerves L2-L4
Quadratus femoris
O: ischial tuberosity
I: quadrate line of the femur
below the
intertrochanteric crest
A: laterally rotates the thigh nerve to the quadratus
N: femoris m.
quadratus plantae
O: anterior portion of the
plantar calcaneus
I: tendons of the flexor
digitorum longus m.
A: assists the flexor
digitorum longus in flexing
the toes
N: lateral plantar nerve
quadriceps femoris
O: anterior surface of the
femur and the anterior
side of the medial and
lateral intermuscular
septa
I: tibial tuberosity via the
patellar ligament
A: extends the knee; rectus
femoris flexes the thigh
N: femoral nerve
rectus femoris
O: anterior inferior iliac
spine; and above the
superior rim of the
acetabulum
I: patella and tibial
tuberosity (via the patellar
ligament)
A: extends the leg, flexes the thigh
N: femoral nerve

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