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Review Ch1 208
Terms in this set (26)
What is challenging about defining microbes?
too small to be seen without mignification
What is microbiology?
THE STUDY OF ORGANISMS TOO SMALL TO BE SEEN BY THE NAKED EYE
What organisms are studied?
Archea, Algea, bacteria, Fungi, Protisata/protozoa, Viruses
Describe microbial categories: archaea
- rRNA sequences that are distinct from Bacteria
in their cell wall
Possess unique membrane lipids
attributes such as the ability to produce methane gas
Many capable of living in **extreme environments
Role in human disease not clearly established
* Generally single-celled organisms
* Most have cell walls that contain peptidoglycan-different
*prokaryotic cell structure (open floor
plan - no membrane bound organelles)
*everywhere: soil, water, air, skin, mouth, intestines, plants
* Diverse in biochemistry & nutrition requirements
Diverse and range from unicellular yeasts to molds and mushrooms.
Generally unicellular and include
Algae, Protozoa, Slime Molds, Water Molds
-Acellular entities that must use host cells to replicate; the simplest composed only of protein and nucleic acid
-10,000 times smaller than bacteria
Describe parasitic worms
Compare cell types: prokaryotes vs eukaryotes
Significance of microbes: ecosystems
The flow of energy and food through the earth's ecosystems
Photosynthesis: Light fueled conversion of carbon dioxide to organic material
Decomposition: Breakdown of dead matter and wastes into simple compounds
Recycling: C, H, N, O, P, S
Plays important roles in
Significance of microbes: human use
-Parasites -live on or in the body of another organism called the host and it damages the host.
Mutualists live in or on a host without harm to the host.
Significance of microbes: medicine
biotechnology- production of foods, drugs, vaccines using living organisms
genetic engineering-use genes of organisms to make new products
bioremediation--using living organisms to remedy and environmental problem
Significance of microbes: disease
Pathogens: Microbes that do harm
Nearly 2,000 different microbes cause diseases
10 B new infections/year worldwide
12 M deaths from infections/year worldwide
microscope, culturing methods, biogenesis, causative agent of disease (events, scientists, contribution)
History of microbiology:aseptic technique,
use to reduce microbes in medical settings and prevent wound infections
Involved disinfection of hands using chemicals prior to surgery
Use of heat for sterilization
History of microbiology: scientific method,
Approach taken by scientists to explain a certain natural phenomenon
Form a hypothesis - a tentative explanation that can be supported or refuted
Deductive approach "If..., then...."
A lengthy process of experimentation, analysis, and testing either supports or refutes the hypothesis
Results must be published and repeated by other investigators.
If hypothesis is supported by a growing body of evidence and survives rigorous scrutiny, it moves to the next level of confidence - it becomes a theory.
If evidence of a theory is so compelling that the next level of confidence is reached, it becomes a Law or principle.
Debunking of spontaneous generation
is an early belief that some forms of life could arise from vital forces present in nonliving or decomposing matter
orderly arrangement of organisms into groups
organizing, classifying, and naming living things
determining and recording traits of organisms for placement into taxonomic schemes
Compare 3 domain (rRNA) vs. 5 kingdom classification
Chapter Summary, p. 24 & Multiple-Choice Questions, p. 25
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