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58 terms

Tissues

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Histology
the study of tissues
Tissues
similar cells that are specialized to carry out a particular function
What are 4 types of tissue
1. Epithelial Tissue
2. Connective Tissue
3. Muscle Tissue
4. Nervous tissue
What are five general characteristic of epithelial tissue?
1. tightly packed with little matrix
2. all have one apical surface
3. all have basement membrane
2. no blood supply (avascular)
3. regenerate easily
What is the apical surface?
free surface exposed to the body's exterior or to the cavity of an internal organ
What is the basement membrane?
layer that anchors epithelial tissue to underlying tissues
What are cilia?
tiny hair-like projections on cell surfaces that move in a wavelike manner
What are the 4 functions of epithelial tissue?
1. Protection
2. Absorption
3. Filtration
5. Secretion
Protection
prevent injury from friction, pathogens, or chemicals
Filtration
movement of material through a membrane
Secretion
substance produced in and released from a gland cell
Absorption
taking in of substance by cells or across membranes
How is epithelial tissue classified?
1) By number of layers
2) Cell shape
What is the function of stratified epithelium?
protection
What are the functions of simple epithelium?
Absorption, Filtration, and Secretion
Where is simple squamous epithelium found in the body?
Air sacs of lungs and walls of capillaries
Where is simple cuboidal epithelium found in the body?
forms walls of the kidney tubules and covers the surface of the ovaries
What is the function of goblet cells?
production and secretion of mucus
Where is simple columnar epithelium found in the body?
linings of the digestive tract such as the small intestine
Where is psuedostratified columnar epithelium found in the body?
linings of respiratory passages
Where is stratified squamous epithelium found in the body?
skin
Where is transitional epithelium found in the body?
urinary bladder
Where is glandular epithelium found in the body?
forming glands throughout the body
What are the functions of connective tissue?
Protecting, Supporting, and Binding Together
What is extracellular matrix?
nonliving material found between cells in connective tissue
What are 2 components of connective tissue?
1. Extracellular Matrix (nonliving)
2. Cells (living)
What are three types of fibers in connective tissue?
1. Cartilagenous Fibers
2. Elastic Fibers
3. Reticular Fibers
Which type of connective tissue is avascular?
dense connective tissue
Where is areolar tissue found in the body?
"cobwebby" tissue found beneath the skin and between muscles
What is another name for adipose tissue?
fat
What is the function of adipose tissue?
Protects (cushions structures), stores fat, protection from extreme temperature changes, and insulates
Where is dense connective tissue found in the body?
ligaments and tendons
Where in the body is reticular connective tissue found?
forming the delicate network of interwoven fibers of the internal framework of some organs
Where in the body is cartilage found?
nose and ears, voice box, vertebral discs
Which type of connective tissue has a solid matrix?
Bone
Which type of connective tissue has a liquid matrix?
Blood
What is the function of blood?
transports gases, defends against disease, clotting
What are the 6 types of connective tissue?
1. Loose Connective Tissue, 2.Adipose, 3.Dense Connective Tissue, 4.Cartilage 5. Bone 6. Blood
What makes muscle tissue different from other tissues
muscle tissue is highly characterized to contract to produce movement
What are the 3 type of muscle tissue
1. Skeletal Muscle
2. Smooth Muscle
3. Cardiac Muscle
What are characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue?
1. long cylindrical cells
2. striated
3. multinucleate
4. voluntary control
Where is skeletal muscle found?
attached to bones
What are characteristics of cardiac muscle tissue?
1. short branching cells
2. striated
3. uninucleate
4. involuntary control
What are general characteristic of smooth muscle tissue?
1. shorter spindled shaped cells
2. no striations
3. uninucleate
4. involuntary control
Where is smooth muscle found?
walls of hallow internal organs (stomach, blood vessels, intestines)
What is the function of skeletal muscle
produce body movements and facial expressions
What is the function of cardiac muscle
pump blood throughout the body
Where is cardiac muscle found?
Heart
What is the functions of nervous tissue?
irritability and conductivity
Irritability
ability to respond to a stimulus
Conductivity
ability to transmit an electrical impulse
What are the two types of nervous tissue?
neurons and neuroglia
What is the function of neurons?
receive and conduct electrochemical impulses from one part of the body to another
What is the function of neuroglia?
insulate, support, and protect delicate neurons
What is regeneration?
the replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells
What is fibrosis?
tissue repairing which involves repair by dense connective tissue by the formation of scar tissue
Which tissues regenerate easily?
epithelial tissue, fibrous connective tissue and bone
Which tissues regenerate poorly?
skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and nervous tissue