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Geog 5 Midterm
Terms in this set (72)
One child in a highly developed country has > environmental impact than ___ children in a
20, 75, 50
Highly developed nations represent ____% of the population, yet generate ____% of the world's pollution, and consume ____% of the world's resources.
the development of living organisms from inorganic matter (dispelled in 19th cent)
Why is it difficult to create tests for environmental problems?
(a) Large systems cannot be manipulated
(b) Creating observational patterns from data may be misleading
(c) There are many complicating factors
(d) All of the above
two things that are associated with each other (i.e.: they occur at the same time)
one thing effects another thing
Does a correlation in environmental science imply causation?
c b a e d
Order the steps (letters) that make up the ideal approach to systematically addressing environmental problems:
(a) Public Engagement
(b) Risk Analysis
(c) Scientific Assessment
(d) Long Term Environmental Management
(e) Political Considerations
What is considered the most successful environmental agreement?
How many times more solar energy is there at the poles than the equator?
Are high and low pressure systems associated with temperature?
Precipitation / cloud cover are associated with ______ pressure systems.
Clear skies are associated with ______ pressure systems
atmospheric pressure exerted by water vapor molecules
saturation vapor pressure
pressure of vapor in equilibrium with liquid phase (temperature dependent)
increases; kinetic energy of molecules increases, which causes more molecules to transition to gaseous phase
What happens to sat. vapor pressure as temperature increases? Why?
actual vapor pressure / saturation vapor pressure
What is the formula for relative humidity?
NH: hurricanes rotate ________
NH: low pressure rotation occurs ________
NH: high pressure rotation occurs ________
describes the significance of coriolis force
coriolis force is important
when the rossby number is 1>
Coriolis force is not important
when the rossby number is 1<<
= velocity / (length scale * coriolis frequency)
equation for rossby number
At which latitudes do Hadley Cells occur?
At which latitudes do Ferrel Cells occur?
At which latitudes do Polar Cells occur?
farther north -- through central america
Where is the ITCZ in July?
farther south -- through south america (northern part)
Where is the ITCZ in January?
0 degrees (equator)
Around what latitude(s) do tropical rainforests exist?
30 degrees n,s
Around what latitude(s) do deserts exist?
Climate is ________, not _______.
Water takes _______ to heat and cool than land. This causes ______________.
Oceans keep areas ________ in summer, and ________ in winter.
areas that are farther inland will have hotter summers and colder winters
What does continentality describe?
6.5 degrees (c) per kilometer
Temps drop at a rate of ________ in the troposphere
What is the energy source of life?
Photosynthesis captures/releases energy.
Respiration captures/releases energy.
pores that take in CO2, while releasing water and O2
transpiration (evaporation from plants)
What limits plants from keeping stomata open all the time?
high reproductive capacity, limits on population growth, heritable variation, differential reproductive success
What are the four observations that guide natural selection?
separation of one species into new species
unrelated species evolving to look and act alike
True/False: Individuals can evolve
True/False: Species can evolve
a large relatively distinct terrestrial region with similar climate, soil, plants, and animals (regardless of where in the world it occurs)
many interacting ecosystems
What do biomes encompass?
temperature and precipitation (dominant), latitude and elevation (secondary)
What are the major abiotic factors that affect biomes?
Surface Water: .01%
What are the following water compartments?
carbohydrate and protein creation; photosynthesis (fixing CO2); fossil fuel creation
List three things that that carbon cycle is important for
1000 Surface Ocean
3700 Deep Ocean
10000 fossil fuels
What are the amounts (in pictograms) of carbon in the following places:
Land Photosynthesis -123 Humans 8
Land Respiration 120 Deforestation 1
Ocean Photosynthesis -92
Ocean Respiration 90
What is the output/input of atmospheric carbon in pictograms of the following systems?
The atmosphere is _____% nitrogen gas.
what are the five ways in which nitrogen cycles between abiotic environment and organisms?
bacteria break up n2 and combine it with h
organisms produce waste/die and and decay. they contain n which is turned into NH4
soil bacteria convert ammonia and ammonium into NO3
plants absorb nitrogen through nitrite, nitrate, or ammonium
bacteria convert nitrogen back to N2 gas
the source of phosphorous
slowly; through their roots
At what speed does phsophorous cycle? How do plants get phosphorous?
necessary to make nucleic acids and ATP
Why is phosphorous important?
describes the number of different kinds of organisms in a community or ecosystem
a measure of the variety of versions of the same genes within an individual species
variety of ecosystems on earth and variety of interactions within ecosystems
1.7 million, 70%
how many species have been identified? What percentage of these species are invertebrates?
What are the estimates of total species (including unidentified?)
latitudinal diversity gradient
in general, species richness seems to be highest at the tropics, and decreases as you move upwards in latitude towards the poles
biodiversity hotspots cover ___% of Earth's terrestrial surface, and contain ___% of plants and mammals.
5, 600 million
There have been ___ previous mass extinction events over the past _____ years.
What is the first extinction we can time to the hour?
1. recognize problem
2. develop hypothesis / make predictions
3. design / perform test of hypothesis
4. analyze data
5. does hypothesis predict reality?
6. share new knowledge with other scientists
7. new knowledge spurs additional testing and new questions
List the steps of the scientific method
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