The author lists items or events in chronological order or presents the reader with step-by-step instructions. Ex words: first, second, third, next, then, before, later, finally, now, when, previously, and before long. The author presents ideas, events, or facts as a cause, and what happens as a result. Ex words: so, because, since, therefore, if...then, this led to, reason why, as a result, effect of, and consequently. The author presents information about the similarities and differences between two or more people, events, ideas, objects, etc. Ex words: same as, similar, alike, as well as, although, also, in the same way, either....or, in comparison, but, on the other hand, however, and in contrast.