HU102-Vocab Quiz 1
Terms in this set (56)
Any kind of music composed according to chance or random procedures.
British neoclassicist writer and translator of the Iliad and the Odyssey. A philosophical optimist, he wrote the long poem Essay on Man to show that "Whatever is, is Right."
a literary device in which objects, persons, or actions are equated with secondary, figurative meanings that underlie their literal meaning.
Italian word meaning "cheerful." A fast tempo in music.
a literary device involving the repetition of initial sounds in successive or closely associated words or syllables.
in painting, similar style components to European neoclassicism; reinforce American cultural connection to Enlightenment ideas & values in the context of North America.
An elaborate solo song or duet, usually with instrumental accompaniment, performed as part of an opera, oratorio, cantata, or other dramatic musical composition.
Jacobus Arminius's theology that since God created all people, everyone is eligible to be saved and go to heaven. Humans have free will to choose. Religious devotion is motivated by love for God and for humans. Religious belief used by Occom & Wheatley to justify their equality with Whites and their right to freedom.
A literary device involving similarity in sound between vowels followed by different consonants.
African American correspondent with Thomas Jefferson. Educated by Quakers. Mathematician, astronomer, natural historian and inventor. Challenged Jefferson's ideas that African Americans were incapable of intellectual achievement.
music lyrics published in 18th and 19th century on one side of paper. Displayed at pubs, taverns, & other gathering places. Designed to be sung to popular tunes. Provided entertainment and contemporary news.
John Calvin's theology that God is all-powerful and humans are powerless. God predetermined what people would be saved and go to heaven after they died. People should live a life devoted to God and they would find out after they died if they were saved. Religious belief of the Puritans.
A multi-movement composition for voices and instrumental accompaniment; smaller in scale than the oratorio. Associated with Lutheran church liturgical services written by J.S. Bach.
exaggeration of human peculiarities or defects, usually in visual representations.
Civic virtue (a.k.a. republican virtue)
developed from Renaissance ideas; financially independent men lead a government by making decisions for the common good. (Women, African Americans, and indigenous peoples were not eligible for this status.)
Color and Light/Dark Contrast
art analysis term. use of color (artist's palette) what range of colors & what specific colors; light/dark contrast to reveal or obscure details. How do they create emotion in a painting
art analysis term. how a painting is organized; arrangement of its parts to create a whole
Concerto—an instrumental composition consisting of one or more solo instruments and a larger group of instruments playing in dialog with each other. The classical concerto made use of the sonata form (fast/slow/fast) and usually featured one soloist and the entire orchestra.
long poetic writings traditionally telling a story about a hero confronting anti-hero during a quest that results in a revelation of meaning or identity for the hero.
Franz Joseph Haydn
called "the father of the symphony." 18th-century composer who developed the classical style. He created the classical symphony and the string quartet. His career spanned the tradition of employment by the aristocracy to self-employment through public concerts and commissioned compositions.
Art movement that reacted in protest to rococo decadence. Realistic scenes of everyday life that honor middle and working class values & virtues and address the social concerns & issues at the time.
technique in literature or art that expresses the artist's meaning through its opposite in order to achieve a humorous effect. The opposite of what a reader/viewer expects which is funny.
18th century author of Pride and Prejudice. Daughter of middle class parents, her novels' heroines attempt to find financial security and proper social behavior in marital relationships. She humorously critiques sentimental love and the human contradictions between behavior and values.
18th century philosopher who believed humans were born good but were corrupted by society and its institutions
early American intellectual. Author of "The Vision of Columbus" that celebrated America's secular success through commercial activity."
political theorist & philosopher; believed humans were born with minds that were a tabula rasa (blank slate) and that experience & environment determine what individuals will become. Believed that political power must remain with the individual and not be held by an absolute ruler because people could use their rational powers to determine the common good. Government is based on the consent of the governed.
John Norton—19th century Native American scholar and performer; demonstrated oral tradition of one version among many of the Iroquois Creation Story.
"the premier British satirist of the 18th century." Wrote Gulliver's Travels and "A Modest Proposal" to criticize "the whimsical nature of human behavior" and the inhumanity of the British government toward the Irish respectively.
new 18th century literary genre of prose essays and editorials designed for the middle class reading public and published in newspapers and magazines.
Line & drawing
art analysis term: extent to which an artist represents a subject as it appears to the human eye.
art analysis term: overall sense of emotion in a painting (created by subject, color, light, & composition)
art analysis term. sense of motion or stasis in a painting; diagonals create a sense of energy or movement while perpendicular lines create sense of calmness and stillness.
Artistic style that exemplifies Enlightenment ideals of reason and order. Incorporating classical themes, using bold colors and strict attention to line and drawing, most paintings promoted serious ethical values. Many paintings include triangular composition and classical architectural elements.
the most important new form of 18th century literary entertainment. Long, fictitious prose narrative, realistic settings, and realistic characters (often from the lower and middle classes).
musical production of a narrative that involves vocalists, an orchestra, and a chorus, set on a theater stage with sets and costumes.
A musical setting of a religious or epic text, for soloists, chorus, and orchestra; usually performed without scenery, costumes, or dramatic action.
Gambian girl abducted and brought to Boston as an African slave. Was educated and became first African American woman to publish a book in British North America. Became a free British citizen in London before the American Revolution.
French for "philosophers." Intellectuals of the European Enlightenment. Associated with salons.
18th -century art movement enjoyed initially by French nobility & characterized by rich ornamentation, featuring white and pastel colors, gilded with gold and silver. Sensual and indulgent rococo works celebrate the luxury and decadence of aristocratic life.
French for "drawing room." An elegant apartment or drawing room; an intellectual gathering held in such a space. Associated with 18th century French intellectuals, philosophes.
Mohican Christian convert. Educated and became ordained minister & missionary to different indigenous peoples. Wrote hymn lyrics. Raised money in England for "Indian School" proposed by Wheelock, but Wheelock founded Dartmouth College instead. Occom was first Native American to publish a collection of hymns in British North America.
a literary genre that pokes fun at human vices and follies.
prose narratives that focus on the experiences of a heroine often as she seeks to find a suitable husband. Events result in emotional responses by the characters and the readers. Usually formulaic in structure, the final resolution is designed to produce a sense of satisfaction and relief for the reader.
prose literature written by Africans who survived the massive cruelties of the transatlantic slave trade. Aimed at convincing readers of the barbarity of slavery and the immorality of the slave trade.
an instrumental composition consisting of three movements with contrasting tempos, usually fast/slow/fast. Written for an unaccompanied keyboard instrument or for another instrument with keyboard accompaniment.
Susanna Haswell Rowson
18th century American author of sentimental novels including Charlotte, A Tale of Truth—the most popular American novel until the mid-1850. Women were virtuous and men (because of their sexuality) were not.
an independent instrumental composition for orchestra. Developed by Haydn in the 18th century.
The American Revolution
a political revolution in the second half of the 18th century that applied Locke's principles of a social contract to an experimental new government. America's first Civil War, with a divided populace that ultimately separated from the British monarchy.
The Great Awakening
a Protestant Evangelical Christian religious movement in early18th-century British North America that focused on religious conversion, an emotional experience, in contrast to ritual. Individuals were responsible for their own religious experience which challenged traditional religious authorities.
political theorist who believed that the best living condition for humans was under the rule of a strong central government because people were incapable of working for the common good of all.
early American intellectual, writer, and minister. Author of epic poem "The Conquest of Canaan" that celebrated American religious virtue as the "New Israel."
Unity & Balance
art analysis term: organization of parts to establish their relationship to each other
material means of relating the formation of the Iroquois Nation. It symbolizes the unity provided to the five nations by the Great Tree of Peace, the metaphor for the Haudenosaunee (the people of the Longhouse.)
first American composer. Wrote sacred & secular music. Known for "Chester"—Revolutionary War era song.
18th century English artist portraying and criticizing contemporary British society. Inspired by plays and novels, his sequential images told a story and had a moral message. His Marriage a la Mode series criticizes members of the ambitious merchant class and members of the aristocracy for arranged marriages based on wealth and status which produce tragic results.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
"the foremost musical genius of the 18th century." A child prodigy, he was an expert performer on the piano and violin. He did not invent new forms, but he creatively interpreted the ones that Haydn and others had invented.
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