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Terms in this set (64)
Lymph originates in blood capillaries that pick up tissue fluid.
Red bone marrow is the point of origin of all immune cells of the lymphatic system.
Mucous membranes prevent most pathogens from entering the body because of the stickiness of the
mucus and the presence of lysozymes.
Interferons are secreted in response to bacterial infections.
Pus is made of dead neutrophils, macrophages, and other tissue debris from a damaged tissue.
Pyrogens act by increasing the set point for body temperature in the thalamus.
The antigenicity of a molecule is due to specific regions of it called haptens.
Interleukins are chemical signals by which immune cells communicate with each other.
Helper T cells respond only to epitopes attached to MHC proteins.
Cytotoxic T cells respond only to antigens bound to MHC-I proteins.
Clonal selection of T cells happens in the thymus.
Naive T cells can synthesize antibodies.
Humoral immunity takes care of intracellular viruses, whereas cellular immunity takes care of
Memory B cells are found circulating mainly in the lymph.
Some antibodies against foreign antigens can react to similar self-antigens causing an autoimmune
Lymphatic vessels recover about ______________ of the fluid filtered by capillaries.
Lymph is similar to blood plasma, but very low in
Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary ______________ that are not absorbed by the
The ______________ tonsils are the largest, and their surgical removal (tonsillectomy) used to be one
of the most common surgical procedures performed in children.
All these forces help lymph to flow except
D. the lymphatic node pump.
_____________ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels and they empty into the _______________.
D. Collecting ducts; subclavian veins
Immune surveillance is a process in which ____________ nonspecifically detect and destroy foreign
cells and diseased host cells.
E. natural killer (NK) cells
This organ shows a remarkable degree of degeneration (involution) with age.
This is the only lymphatic organ with afferent lymphatic vessels.
A. lymph node
Removal of the _________________ will be the most harmful of all for a one-year-old child.
All these belong to the second line of defense except
D. the gastric juices.
______________ are found especially in the mucous membrane, standing guard against parasites and
___________ employ a "respiratory burst" to produce bactericidal chemicals such as hydrogen
peroxide (H2O2) and hypochlorite (HClO).
Complement fixation can lead to any of the following effects except
C. endogenous pyrexia.
________________ are secreted by cells infected with viruses, alerting neighboring cells and
protecting them from becoming infected.
A pyrogen is a substance that causes
This is the first of a series of neutrophil behaviors in inflammation.
_______________ is not a cardinal sign characteristic of inflammation.
A. Impaired use
Basophils of the blood help to get defensive leukocytes to the site quickly by releasing an
anticoagulant called _____ and a vasodilator called ____________.
D. heparin; histamine
All these cellular agents participate in inflammation except
A. cytotoxic T cells.
These are a group of proteolytic enzymes secreted by natural killer (NK) cells.
Complement C3b protein coats bacteria and stimulates phagocytosis by ___________ in a process
E. neutrophils and macrophages; opsonization
_________________ are antimicrobial proteins.
One characteristic of the immune response is specificity. This means that
D. immunity is directed against a particular pathogen.
B. artificial active immunity.
Cellular (cell-mediated) immunity is effective against
C. cancer cells.
A(n) ______________ is the region of the molecule that is recognized by antibodies.
T cells achieve immunocompetence in
D. the thymus.
T cells undergo positive selection in the thymus, which means
E. they multiply and form clones of identical T cells.
The serum used for emergency treatment of snakebites stimulates
A. artificial passive immunity.
The majority of T cells of the naive lymphocyte pool wait for the encounter with foreign antigens in
C. the lymphatic tissues.
All of the following can act as antigen-presenting cells excep
E. T cells.
Helper T (TH) cells recognize antigens when they are bound to a(n)
D. major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein.
Antigen-presenting cells usually display processed antigens to T cells in
B. lymph nodes.
Helper T (TH) cells do not
E. secrete fever-producing chemicals.
_____________________ participate in both nonspecific resistance and immune response.
D. Helper T (TH) cells
Cytotoxic T (TC) cells are like natural killer (NK) cells because they both
B. secrete granzymes and perforin.
Memory T cells can live up to
Antibodies do not
differentiate into memory antibodies, which upon reexposure to the same pathogen would mount a
This is the correct sequence of events in the humoral immune response.
B. antigen recognition → antigen presentation → clonal selection → differentiation → attack
Each immunoglobulin (Ig) has ______________ antigen-bonding site(s).
_________________ constitutes about 80% of circulating antibodies in plasma.
This is the class of immunoglobulin that provides passive immunity to the newborn.
Before B cells secrete antibodies they differentiate into
C. plasma cells.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets mainly
A. helper T cells.
Most common allergies are the result of
E. type I (acute) hypersensitivity.
Beta cell destruction that causes type 1 diabetes mellitus is a(n)
B. type IV (delayed) hypersensitivity.
A person who is HIV-positive and has a helper T (TH) cells count lower than ____________ has
D. 200 cells/μL
Autoimmune diseases are disorders in which the immune system fails to distinguish ____________
from foreign ones.
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