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Terms in this set (16)

Overview of the Adrenal Gland:

The adrenal glands produce three classes of ? hormones (mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens), and two ? hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine).
Although it is difficult to assign a single specific physiological function to the adrenal gland, many of the adrenal hormones are involved in some aspect of the body's response to ?.
The glucocorticoids, primarily cortisol, play important roles in the regulation of ? metabolism and have a multitude of additional effects on many physiological systems and organs in the body.
The mineralocorticoid, aldosterone, is vital in maintaining ?.
Although the adrenal androgens DHEA and androstenedione are quite weak androgens compared to testosterone, they may have effects on the establishment and maintenance of ?
The main catecholamine produced in by the adrenal gland is? (adrenaline), which mediates the primary physiological responses to 'flight-or-fight' situations and other physiological stresses.
The adrenal gland is composed of essentially two functionally and developmentally distinct endocrine organs: ? and the ?.
Embryologically, the cortex is derived from mesoderm while the medulla is derived from neural crest cells that migrate into the developing cortex. The cortex and medulla synthesize different chemical classes of hormones. The cortex produces ?, while the medulla produces ?.
The cortex is composed of three discreet layers, each of which makes a distinct set of cortical hormones. The specific set of hormones produced from each layer is determined by ?
Physiological effects of cortisol:

Carbohydrate metabolism: One of the primary effects of cortisol, and the basis of its classification as a glucocorticoid, is to ?. This is accomplished by stimulating?

Protein metabolism: Cortisol inhibits ? and increases ? especially in ?. The liberated amino acids are used by the liver for ?, a process that is strongly stimulated by glucocorticoids. These negative effects on protein metabolism, may contribute to the ?

Lipid metabolism: Cortisol increases ? and raises ?. A large portion of the fat liberated from adipose is ?
Importantly, the lipid-releasing activity of cortisol does not occur equally in all adipose tissue depots. In conditions of chronically elevated cortisol, ?

Inflammation and the immunity: The effects of cortisol on inflammation are complex and not fully understood. Although cortisol plays a role in all stages of a normal inflammatory response, from initiation to resolution, it is most commonly associated with ? The anti-inflammatory effect of cortisol is due, in part, to ? Among many other effects, cortisol can also suppress ?

The immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions of the glucocorticoids are exploited clinically for the inhibition of transplant rejection and for the treatment of allergic and autoimmune syndromes. The risks associated with this therapy are increased susceptibility to infection and the induction of Cushing's syndrome, similar to Cushing's disease, which is caused by ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma.