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Seeley's Anatomy & Physiology (ninth edition) Cinnamon VanPutte, Jennifer Regan, Andrew Russo McGraw-Hill Companies ISBN-13: 97800773500


collection of specialized cells and the extracellular substances surrounding them

extracellular matrix

noncellular substances surrounding the cells

epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous

four primary tissue types


microscopic study of tissues


process of removing tissue sample from patients surgically or with a needle for diagnostic purposes


examination of the organs of a dead body to determine the cause of death or to study the changes caused by disease

embryonic tissue

embryonic stem cells


embryonic germ layers


inner layer; forms the lining of the digestive tract and its derivatives


middle layer; forms tissues such as muscle, bone and blood vessels


outer layer; forms the skin


portion of the ectoderm that becomes the nervous system

epithelial tissue (epithelium)

tissue that covers and protects surfaces both inside and outside the body; mostly composed of cells; nonvascular

apical (free) surface

surface of epithelium not attached to other cells

later suface

surface of epithelium attached to other cells

basal surface

the surface attached to the basement membrane in most epithelium

basement membrane

specialized type of extracellular material secreted by epithelial and connective tissue cells; helps attach the cells to the underlying tissue and plays an important role in supporting and guiding cell migration during tissue repair

protecting underlying structures
acting as a barrier
permitting the passage of substances
secreting substances
absorbing substances

major functions of epithelial tissue

connective tissue

consists of cells separated from each other by abundant exracellular matrix

enclosing and separating other tissues
connecting tissues to one another
supporting and moving parts of the body
storing compounds
cushioning and insulating

major functions of connective tissue


creates the extracellular matrix


maintains the extracellular matrix


breaks down the extracellular matrix for remodeling


cells that form fibrous connective tissue


cells that maintain fibrous connective tissue


forms cartilage


maintains cartilage


forms bone


maintains bone


breaks down bone

adipose cell (adipocyte)

contains large amounts of lipid; the lipid pushes the rest of the cell contents to the periphery

mast cell

cell that commonly lies beneath membranes in loose connective tissue and along small blood vessels and organs; contain chemicals that are released in response to injury, trauma and infection

white blood cell (leukocyte)

cell that continuously moves from blood vessels into connective tissues; movement increases dramatically in response to injury or infection


derived from from monocytes; phagocytizes foreign and injured cell; play a major roll in protecting against infection; can be either fixed or wandering


fragments of hemopoetic cells containing enzymes and special proteins that function in the clotting process to reduce bleeding from a wound

undifferentiated mesenchymal cell

typical adult stem cell that persists in connective tissue; has the potential to form multiple cells

collagen fibers

protein fibers that consist of collagen; very strong and flexible, but inelastic

reticular fibers

protein fibers that consist of very fine collagen fibers; very short, thin fibers that branch to form a networks that fill spaces between organs

elastic fibers

protein fibers that consist of elastin; have the ability to return to the original shape after being stretched or compressed


types of protein fibers

ground substance

constituted mostly by hyaluronic acid and proteoglycans; background against which collagen fibers are microscopically examined

hyaluronic acid

long, unbranched polysaccharide chain composed of repeated disaccharide units; gives a slippery quality to fluids

proteoglycan monomer

large molecule that consists of glycosaminoglycans; each attached by one end to a protein core

proteoglycan aggregate

proteoglycan monomer attached to a hyaluronic acid

adhesive molecule

holds the proteoglycan aggregate together and to structures such as the plasma membrane


adhesive molecule found in the ground substance of cartilage


adhesive molecule found in the ground substance of bone


adhesive molecule found in the ground substance of fibrous connective tissue

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