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Anatomy and Physiology - chapter 4: classification of epithelial tissues

Seeley's Anatomy & Physiology (ninth edition) Cinnamon VanPutte, Jennifer Regan, Andrew Russo McGraw-Hill Companies ISBN-13: 97800773500
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simple epithelium
consists of a single layer of cells, with each cell extending from the basement membrane to the free surface
stratified epithelium
consists of more than one layer of cells, but only the basal layer attaches the deepest layer to the basement membrane
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
special type of simple epithelium that appears to be stratified but is not
squamous
flat, scalelike cells
cuboidal
cube-shaped cells; about as wide as they are tall
columnar
cells that are taller than they are wide
nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium that consists of living cells in the deepest and outermost layers; layer of fluid covers the outermost layers; found in areas such as the mouth, esophagus, rectum and vagina
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium that consists of liveing cells in the deepest layers and dead cells in the outermost layers; dry, durable, moisture-resistant character; found in the skin, gums and oral hard palate
transitional epithelium
stratified epithelium where the shape of the cells and number of cell layer vary; underlying cells are roughly cuboidal or columnar when not stretched and become more squamous when they are stretched; lines the urinary bladder, ureters, pelvis of the kidney and the superior portion of the urethra
diffusion, secretion and absorption
simple epithelium functions
protection
stratified epithelium function
filtration and diffusion
squamous epithelium function
secretion and absorption
columnar and cuboidal epithelium function
microvilli
nonmotile; greatly increase free surface area and occur in cells that absorb or secrete
stereocilia
elongated microvilli found in sensory organs, such as the inner ear; play a role in sound detection
desmosome
disk-shaped structure with especially adhesive glycoproteins that bind cells to one another and intermediate filaments that extend into the cytoplasm of the cells
hemisdesmosome
attaches epithelial cells to the basement membrane
tight junction
holds cells together and forms a permeability membrane; formed by plasma membranes of adjacent cells that join to one another in a jigsaw fashion
adhesion belt
located between the plasma membranes of adjacent cells and just below the tight junction; acts as a weak glue that holds cells together
gap junction
small, specialized contact region between cells containing protein channels that aid intercellular communication by allowing ions and small molecules to pass from one cell to another
intercalated disk
gap junction between cardiac muscle cells
gland
secretory organ; composed primarily of epithelial cells supported by a connective tissue network; develop from an infolding or outfolding of epithelium
exocrine gland
gland with duct
endocrine gland
gland with no duct
hormone
product of endocrine glands
multicellular gland
gland composed of many cells
unicellular gland
gland composed of a single cell
Goblet cell
unicellular gland in the respiratory system that secretes mucus