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Chapters 1-4


The study of body structures and their relationships

Microscopic Anatomy

The study of structures too small to be seen without magnification


Study of cells


Study of tissues

Gross Anatomy

Also known as macroscopic anatomy. The study of structures visible to the unaided eye.

Regional Anatomy

The study of all structures in a specific area

Systemic Anatomy

The study of anatomy one organ system at a time over the entire body

Surface Anatomy

The study of superficial anatomical markings

Developmental Anatomy

The study of structural changes over time


The study of the first two months of development

Functional Anatomy

The study of how anatomical structures work

Radiographic Anatomy

The study of anatomical structures as they are visualized by x-rays, ultrasound scans, or other specialized procedures performed on an intact body

Cross-sectional Anatomy

The study of cross sections of the body

4 Main Elements in the Body

Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon, and Nitrogen (99%)

The Levels of Organization

Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems

How many organ systems are in the body?


Anatomical Position

Standing upright, arms at sides, palms facing forward, feet flat on the floor, face straight ahead

Transverse Plane

Dividing the body into superior and inferior sections

Sagittal Plane

Dividing the body into right and left sections

Frontal Plane

Dividing the body into front and back sections

Dorsal Body Cavity

Houses the CNS (brain and spinal cord). Contains the vertebral and cranial cavities

Ventral Body Cavity

Houses organs of the respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, and reproductive system(s). Separated into thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities by the diaphragm


Muscular sheet that divides the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities in the ventral body cavity

Serous Membranes

Two layer membrane that lines and lubricates the contents of the ventral body cavity


Structural building blocks of all plants and animals

Two categories of cells

Sex cells and somatic cells

Four main function of the phospholipid bilayer

Physical isolation, regulation of exchange with the environment, sensitivity, structural support


Net movement of material from area of higher to lower concentration (passive process)


Diffusion of water across a membrane (passive process)


Materials are engulfed in cell membrane and punched off as a vesicle (active process)


Taking in solid objects such as bacteria (active process)


Vesicle fuses with plasmalemma and ejects contents (active process)

Bulk Transport

Bringing into the cell


All of the material inside the cell


The intracellular fluid


Structures in the cytoplasm that have a particular structure


Provides structural support, moves other materials throughout the cytoplasm (Nonmembranous organelle)

Cytoskeleton composition

Composed of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, thick filaments, and microtubules


Cylindrical bundles of short microtubules: 9+0 arrangement (nonmembranous organelle)


Similar to cilia, except longer. Produces locomotion, found only in sperm cells in humans (nonmembranous organelle)


Longer bundles of microtubles: 9+2 arrangement (nonmembraneous organelle)


Tiny protein factories (nonmembranous organelle)

Free Ribosomes

Float in cytoplasm

Fixed Ribosomes

Attached to ER


ATP producers, double membrane, forms cristae (Membranous organelle)


Control center for the cell, determines which proteins are synthesized, and how many copies of proteins are synthesized, double membrane, houses DNA (Membranous organelle)

Mature RBC's

No nucleous

Skeletal Muscle Cells

Many nuclei


Sythesis, Storage, Transport, Detoxification---Smooth and Rough ER (Membranous organelle)

Golgi Apparatus

Modification, Packaging, Synthesis (Membranous organelle)


Break up: contains digestive enzymes formed by RER (Membranous organelle)


Contain enzymes made by free ribosomes in cytosol, digest fat and toxins, abundant in liver cells (Membranous organelle)

Communicating Junctions

Cell-to-cell channel proteins that allow ions and other small molecules to pass

Adhering Junctions

Tight junctions that prevent materials from passing between cells

Anchoring Junctions

Rivets that hold cells together (within the adhering junctions)

4 Primary Types of Tissues

Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Neural

Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue

Very little space b/t cells, arranged in sheets and layers, have apical surface and basal surface which is attached to basal lamina, avascular, highly regenerative

Functions of Epithelial Tissue

Provide physical protection, control organ permeability, provide sensation, produce secretions


Increased surface area


Receptors for hearing and balance


Movement of extracelular substances

Simple vs Stratified

one layer vs several layers

Simple Squamous Epithelium

Lining of serous membranes, heart and blood vessels, lung alveoli (gas exchange)

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Epidermis, Buccal cavity, esophagus, rectum, anus (protection from abrasion and chemical/biological agents)

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

Glands, small ducts of glands (absorption/secretion, limited protection)

Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

Rare, Large ducts of exocrine glands

Simple Columnar Epithelium

Lining of stomach and intestines

Stratified Columnar Epithelium

Rare, Large ducts of glands

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium

Lining of respiratory tract

Transitional Epithelium

Urinary tract

Glandular Epithelia

Epithelia that are dominated by gland cells (form glands)

Exorcrine Glands

Secretions through ducts: serous, mucous, mixed exocrine


No ducts: hormones released directly into extracellular fluid


Exocytosis only


Secretory vesicles and apical part of cell


Entire cell ruptures

Most abundant tissue in body?


CT Components

Specialized cells, extracellular protein fibers, extracellular ground substance (matrix)

Function of CT

Provide framework, transport fluid, protect organs, support tissues, store energy, defend body from microorganisms

CT Types

CT Proper, Fluid CT, Supporting CT


Synthesize extracellular fibers and part of ground substance (CT Proper: fixed cell type)


Maintain fivers and ground substance (CT Proper: fixed cell type)


Fat cells; energy storage (CT Proper: fixed cell type)

Fixed Macrophages

Defensive cells; signal wandering cells (CT Proper: fixed cell type)

Free Macrophages

Mobile phagocytes (CT Proper: wandering cell type)


Become plasmocytes and make antibodies (CT Proper: wandering cell type)


Small phagocytes: eat bacteria/antibodies (CT Proper: wandering cell type)

Mast Cells

Stimulate local inflammation (CT Proper: wandering cell type)

Collagen Fibers

Long, unbranched fibers made up of three protein subunits wound together; most common, strongest; tendons and ligaments (CT Proper: fibers)

Reticular Fibers

Highly branched fibers of the same proteins as collagen; resist multidirectional forces (CT Proper: fibers)

Elastic Fibers

Branching and wavy fibers containing protein elastin (CT Proper: fibers)

Loose CT Proper

Few fibers, mostly ground substance

Dense CT Proper

Mostly fibers, little ground substance, few cells, holds us together

Areolar Tissue

Mostly ground substance; every cell and fiber type, flexible, underlies most epithelia, many capillaries (Loose CT)

Adipose Tissue

Dominated by adipocytes, provides cushioning, thermal insulation, energy storage (Loose CT)

Reticular Tissue

Much ground substance, abundant reticular fibers, forms main structure of many organs; "cracked glass" appearance (Loose CT)

Dense Regular CT

Collagen fibers aligned in one main direction, makes up tendons and ligaments (Dense CT)

Elastic Tissue

Elastic fibers, bundles and aligned in one direction, found where strength and flexibility are needed (Dense CT)

Dense Irregular CT

Collagen fibers, fibers run in many directions, found where tension comes from (Dense CT)


Sheet of epithelium with a layer of CT udnerneath

Mucous Membranes

Wet membranes with a connection to exterior

Serous Membranes

Line ventral body cavity

Cutaneous Membrane

Skin; thick, dry, water-resistant membrane

Synovial Membrane

Lines some joint capsules


Matrix called plasma; watery contains many proteins (Fluid CT)


Plasma that has left arteries and veins, lacks RBC's with suspended proteins, "interstitial fluid" (Fluid CT)

Cartilage of Supporting CT

Chondroblasts: form from mesenchymal cells or fibroblasts; secrete matrix---avascular

Hyaline Cartilage

Most common type, Makes up embryonic skeleton, Occurs in articular surfaces of joints, respiratory tract, and rib cage (Supporting CT)

Elastic Cartilage

Many elastic fibers, flexible and resilient, occurs in the external ear, epiglottis (Supporting CT)

Fibrous Cartilage

Many collagen fibers, little ground substance, very tough; occurs on intervertebral discs, menisci of knee joint (Supporting CT)


Formed and maintained by osteoblasts and osteocytes, matrix made up of collagen fibers and calcium phosphate; vascular (Supporting CT)

Skeletal Tissue

Muscles; striated voluntary, many nuclei cells (Muscle Tissue)

Cardiac Tissue

Heart only; striations, branchings, intercalated discs; started involuntary muscle (Muscle Tissue)


Digestive, respiratory, and vascular systems; No striations, Nonstriated involuntary muscles (Muscle Tissue)


Conducting nerve cells (Neural Tissue)


Specialized supporting cells (Neural Tissue)

Composition of Integumentary System

Composed of skin (cutaneous membranes) and accessory structures

Functions of Integumentary System

Physical protection, regulation of body temperature, secretion and subsequent excretion, sensation, communication, immune defense


Made of stratified squamous epithelium; made up of keratinocytes


Underlying CT

Accessory Structures of the Integumentary System

Hair, nails, and glands


Undergo changes while pushed toward apical surface; produces 4-5 layers

Stratum Basale

Attached to basal lamina, 1 row of basal cells, contain melanocytes, contain merkel cells

Merkel cells

Touch sensitive, stimulate nearby nerve endings (stratum basale)


Produce pigment melanin; interspersed between basal cells (stratum basale)

Stratum Spinosum

Cells now differentiated into keratinocytes, several cells rows thick, cell division still occurs, melanin in keratinocytes, contain Langerhans cells

Langerhans Cells

Mobile macrophages (stratum spinosum)

Stratum Granulosum

Keratinocytes become flatter, few rows thick, keratohyalin granules and keratin are especially high in area of high friction (calluses); cell membranes thicken, nuclei and other organelles get digested

Stratum Lucidum

Only found in thick skin; palm, soles. Few rows of flat, dead keratinocytes; doesn't stain well, clear layer

Stratum Corneum

Several rows of very flat, dead, keratinocytes; nothing but thick plasmalemmas filled completely with keratin

Layers of the Dermis

Papillary Layer and Reticular Layer

Papillary Layer

Areolar CT, dermal papillae, contains tactile corpuscles and their neurons (Dermis)

Reticular Layer

Dense irregular CT, thickest part, contains lamellated corpuscles, contains bulk of accessory structures (Dermis)


Highly vascular, supplies epidermis and hypodermic, important in thermoregulation; collagen and reticular fibers make it strong but resilient (stretch marks, wrinkles)


Keeps more heat/nutrients internal (Dermis Thermoregulation)


Sends more hear to surface for cooling (Dermis Thermoregulation)


Dermal ridges and epidermal ridges in areas of thick skin; whorl patters unique to individuals, sweat pores cause to leave prints behind (Epidermis)

Skin Color

Blood flow to dermis, thickness of stratum corneum; melanin and carotene


Yellow/reddish; brown/black




Subcutaneous layer; composed of loose CT; important thermal insulation


Flexible strand of dead keratinized cells

Hair Functions

Protection from UV rays, protection from trauma, thermal insulation, provides barrier against foreign objects, sensory

Hair Follicles

Organ that produces hair

Epithelial Root Sheath

Derived from epidermis; internal/external (Hair Follicles)

CT Root Sheath

Derived from dermis (Hair Follicle)

Glassy Membrane

Between external root sheath and CT sheath (Hair follicle)


Central core of cells and air (Hair Structure)


Flattened cell layers surrounding medulla (Hair Structure)

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