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Anatomy Test #1

Chapters 1-4
STUDY
PLAY
Anatomy
The study of body structures and their relationships
Microscopic Anatomy
The study of structures too small to be seen without magnification
Cytology
Study of cells
Histology
Study of tissues
Gross Anatomy
Also known as macroscopic anatomy. The study of structures visible to the unaided eye.
Regional Anatomy
The study of all structures in a specific area
Systemic Anatomy
The study of anatomy one organ system at a time over the entire body
Surface Anatomy
The study of superficial anatomical markings
Developmental Anatomy
The study of structural changes over time
Embryology
The study of the first two months of development
Functional Anatomy
The study of how anatomical structures work
Radiographic Anatomy
The study of anatomical structures as they are visualized by x-rays, ultrasound scans, or other specialized procedures performed on an intact body
Cross-sectional Anatomy
The study of cross sections of the body
4 Main Elements in the Body
Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon, and Nitrogen (99%)
The Levels of Organization
Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems
How many organ systems are in the body?
11
Anatomical Position
Standing upright, arms at sides, palms facing forward, feet flat on the floor, face straight ahead
Transverse Plane
Dividing the body into superior and inferior sections
Sagittal Plane
Dividing the body into right and left sections
Frontal Plane
Dividing the body into front and back sections
Dorsal Body Cavity
Houses the CNS (brain and spinal cord). Contains the vertebral and cranial cavities
Ventral Body Cavity
Houses organs of the respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, and reproductive system(s). Separated into thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities by the diaphragm
Diaphragm
Muscular sheet that divides the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities in the ventral body cavity
Serous Membranes
Two layer membrane that lines and lubricates the contents of the ventral body cavity
Cells
Structural building blocks of all plants and animals
Two categories of cells
Sex cells and somatic cells
Four main function of the phospholipid bilayer
Physical isolation, regulation of exchange with the environment, sensitivity, structural support
Diffusion
Net movement of material from area of higher to lower concentration (passive process)
Osmosis
Diffusion of water across a membrane (passive process)
Endocytosis
Materials are engulfed in cell membrane and punched off as a vesicle (active process)
Phagocytosis
Taking in solid objects such as bacteria (active process)
Exocytosis
Vesicle fuses with plasmalemma and ejects contents (active process)
Bulk Transport
Bringing into the cell
Cytoplasm
All of the material inside the cell
Cytosol
The intracellular fluid
Organelles
Structures in the cytoplasm that have a particular structure
Cytoskeleton
Provides structural support, moves other materials throughout the cytoplasm (Nonmembranous organelle)
Cytoskeleton composition
Composed of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, thick filaments, and microtubules
Centrioles
Cylindrical bundles of short microtubules: 9+0 arrangement (nonmembranous organelle)
Flagella
Similar to cilia, except longer. Produces locomotion, found only in sperm cells in humans (nonmembranous organelle)
Cilia
Longer bundles of microtubles: 9+2 arrangement (nonmembraneous organelle)
Ribosomes
Tiny protein factories (nonmembranous organelle)
Free Ribosomes
Float in cytoplasm
Fixed Ribosomes
Attached to ER
Mitochondria
ATP producers, double membrane, forms cristae (Membranous organelle)
Nucleus
Control center for the cell, determines which proteins are synthesized, and how many copies of proteins are synthesized, double membrane, houses DNA (Membranous organelle)
Mature RBC's
No nucleous
Skeletal Muscle Cells
Many nuclei
ER
Sythesis, Storage, Transport, Detoxification---Smooth and Rough ER (Membranous organelle)
Golgi Apparatus
Modification, Packaging, Synthesis (Membranous organelle)
Lysosomes
Break up: contains digestive enzymes formed by RER (Membranous organelle)
Peroxisomes
Contain enzymes made by free ribosomes in cytosol, digest fat and toxins, abundant in liver cells (Membranous organelle)
Communicating Junctions
Cell-to-cell channel proteins that allow ions and other small molecules to pass
Adhering Junctions
Tight junctions that prevent materials from passing between cells
Anchoring Junctions
Rivets that hold cells together (within the adhering junctions)
4 Primary Types of Tissues
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Neural
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue
Very little space b/t cells, arranged in sheets and layers, have apical surface and basal surface which is attached to basal lamina, avascular, highly regenerative
Functions of Epithelial Tissue
Provide physical protection, control organ permeability, provide sensation, produce secretions
Microvilli
Increased surface area
Stereocilia
Receptors for hearing and balance
Cilia
Movement of extracelular substances
Simple vs Stratified
one layer vs several layers
Simple Squamous Epithelium
Lining of serous membranes, heart and blood vessels, lung alveoli (gas exchange)
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Epidermis, Buccal cavity, esophagus, rectum, anus (protection from abrasion and chemical/biological agents)
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
Glands, small ducts of glands (absorption/secretion, limited protection)
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
Rare, Large ducts of exocrine glands
Simple Columnar Epithelium
Lining of stomach and intestines
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
Rare, Large ducts of glands
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium
Lining of respiratory tract
Transitional Epithelium
Urinary tract
Glandular Epithelia
Epithelia that are dominated by gland cells (form glands)
Exorcrine Glands
Secretions through ducts: serous, mucous, mixed exocrine
Endocrine
No ducts: hormones released directly into extracellular fluid
Merocrine
Exocytosis only
Apocrine
Secretory vesicles and apical part of cell
Holocrine
Entire cell ruptures
Most abundant tissue in body?
CT
CT Components
Specialized cells, extracellular protein fibers, extracellular ground substance (matrix)
Function of CT
Provide framework, transport fluid, protect organs, support tissues, store energy, defend body from microorganisms
CT Types
CT Proper, Fluid CT, Supporting CT
Fibroblasts
Synthesize extracellular fibers and part of ground substance (CT Proper: fixed cell type)
Fibrocytes
Maintain fivers and ground substance (CT Proper: fixed cell type)
Adipocytes
Fat cells; energy storage (CT Proper: fixed cell type)
Fixed Macrophages
Defensive cells; signal wandering cells (CT Proper: fixed cell type)
Free Macrophages
Mobile phagocytes (CT Proper: wandering cell type)
Lymphocytes
Become plasmocytes and make antibodies (CT Proper: wandering cell type)
Neutrophils/Eosinophils
Small phagocytes: eat bacteria/antibodies (CT Proper: wandering cell type)
Mast Cells
Stimulate local inflammation (CT Proper: wandering cell type)
Collagen Fibers
Long, unbranched fibers made up of three protein subunits wound together; most common, strongest; tendons and ligaments (CT Proper: fibers)
Reticular Fibers
Highly branched fibers of the same proteins as collagen; resist multidirectional forces (CT Proper: fibers)
Elastic Fibers
Branching and wavy fibers containing protein elastin (CT Proper: fibers)
Loose CT Proper
Few fibers, mostly ground substance
Dense CT Proper
Mostly fibers, little ground substance, few cells, holds us together
Areolar Tissue
Mostly ground substance; every cell and fiber type, flexible, underlies most epithelia, many capillaries (Loose CT)
Adipose Tissue
Dominated by adipocytes, provides cushioning, thermal insulation, energy storage (Loose CT)
Reticular Tissue
Much ground substance, abundant reticular fibers, forms main structure of many organs; "cracked glass" appearance (Loose CT)
Dense Regular CT
Collagen fibers aligned in one main direction, makes up tendons and ligaments (Dense CT)
Elastic Tissue
Elastic fibers, bundles and aligned in one direction, found where strength and flexibility are needed (Dense CT)
Dense Irregular CT
Collagen fibers, fibers run in many directions, found where tension comes from (Dense CT)
Membrane
Sheet of epithelium with a layer of CT udnerneath
Mucous Membranes
Wet membranes with a connection to exterior
Serous Membranes
Line ventral body cavity
Cutaneous Membrane
Skin; thick, dry, water-resistant membrane
Synovial Membrane
Lines some joint capsules
Blood
Matrix called plasma; watery contains many proteins (Fluid CT)
Lymph
Plasma that has left arteries and veins, lacks RBC's with suspended proteins, "interstitial fluid" (Fluid CT)
Cartilage of Supporting CT
Chondroblasts: form from mesenchymal cells or fibroblasts; secrete matrix---avascular
Hyaline Cartilage
Most common type, Makes up embryonic skeleton, Occurs in articular surfaces of joints, respiratory tract, and rib cage (Supporting CT)
Elastic Cartilage
Many elastic fibers, flexible and resilient, occurs in the external ear, epiglottis (Supporting CT)
Fibrous Cartilage
Many collagen fibers, little ground substance, very tough; occurs on intervertebral discs, menisci of knee joint (Supporting CT)
Bone
Formed and maintained by osteoblasts and osteocytes, matrix made up of collagen fibers and calcium phosphate; vascular (Supporting CT)
Skeletal Tissue
Muscles; striated voluntary, many nuclei cells (Muscle Tissue)
Cardiac Tissue
Heart only; striations, branchings, intercalated discs; started involuntary muscle (Muscle Tissue)
Smooth
Digestive, respiratory, and vascular systems; No striations, Nonstriated involuntary muscles (Muscle Tissue)
Neurons
Conducting nerve cells (Neural Tissue)
Neuroglia
Specialized supporting cells (Neural Tissue)
Composition of Integumentary System
Composed of skin (cutaneous membranes) and accessory structures
Functions of Integumentary System
Physical protection, regulation of body temperature, secretion and subsequent excretion, sensation, communication, immune defense
Epidermis
Made of stratified squamous epithelium; made up of keratinocytes
Dermis
Underlying CT
Accessory Structures of the Integumentary System
Hair, nails, and glands
Keratinocytes
Undergo changes while pushed toward apical surface; produces 4-5 layers
Stratum Basale
Attached to basal lamina, 1 row of basal cells, contain melanocytes, contain merkel cells
Merkel cells
Touch sensitive, stimulate nearby nerve endings (stratum basale)
Melanocytes
Produce pigment melanin; interspersed between basal cells (stratum basale)
Stratum Spinosum
Cells now differentiated into keratinocytes, several cells rows thick, cell division still occurs, melanin in keratinocytes, contain Langerhans cells
Langerhans Cells
Mobile macrophages (stratum spinosum)
Stratum Granulosum
Keratinocytes become flatter, few rows thick, keratohyalin granules and keratin are especially high in area of high friction (calluses); cell membranes thicken, nuclei and other organelles get digested
Stratum Lucidum
Only found in thick skin; palm, soles. Few rows of flat, dead keratinocytes; doesn't stain well, clear layer
Stratum Corneum
Several rows of very flat, dead, keratinocytes; nothing but thick plasmalemmas filled completely with keratin
Layers of the Dermis
Papillary Layer and Reticular Layer
Papillary Layer
Areolar CT, dermal papillae, contains tactile corpuscles and their neurons (Dermis)
Reticular Layer
Dense irregular CT, thickest part, contains lamellated corpuscles, contains bulk of accessory structures (Dermis)
Dermis
Highly vascular, supplies epidermis and hypodermic, important in thermoregulation; collagen and reticular fibers make it strong but resilient (stretch marks, wrinkles)
Vasoconstriction
Keeps more heat/nutrients internal (Dermis Thermoregulation)
Vasodialation
Sends more hear to surface for cooling (Dermis Thermoregulation)
Fingerprints
Dermal ridges and epidermal ridges in areas of thick skin; whorl patters unique to individuals, sweat pores cause to leave prints behind (Epidermis)
Skin Color
Blood flow to dermis, thickness of stratum corneum; melanin and carotene
Melanin
Yellow/reddish; brown/black
Carotene
Yellow/orange
Hypodermis
Subcutaneous layer; composed of loose CT; important thermal insulation
Hair
Flexible strand of dead keratinized cells
Hair Functions
Protection from UV rays, protection from trauma, thermal insulation, provides barrier against foreign objects, sensory
Hair Follicles
Organ that produces hair
Epithelial Root Sheath
Derived from epidermis; internal/external (Hair Follicles)
CT Root Sheath
Derived from dermis (Hair Follicle)
Glassy Membrane
Between external root sheath and CT sheath (Hair follicle)
Medulla
Central core of cells and air (Hair Structure)
Cortex
Flattened cell layers surrounding medulla (Hair Structure)
Cuticle
1 layer of overlapping scale-like cells (Hair Structure)
Hair Development
Pocket of epidermis descends into dermis; Hair papilla forms inside hair bulb; epithelial cells on the papilla are called matrix; matrix is essential the stratum basale; Daughter cells from center of matrix become medulla; daughter cells from around the matrix become cortex; daughter cells from base of the matrix become cuticle; hair color influenced by melanin
Arrector Pilli Muscles
Smooth muscles; Chill bumps
Root Hair Plexus
Nerve endings
Sebaceous Glands
Secrete waxy lipid (Exocrine Gland)
Apocrine Sweat Glands
Axillary, groin, genital area; associated with hair follicles
Merocrine Sweat Glands
Most abundant type of sweat glands
Modified Sweat Glands
Mammary glands; ceruminous glands
Nails
Modification of epidermis; Nail body lies on nail bed, Nail bed is the deeper layers of epidermis, Nail body is the stratum corneum; growth occurs only at the matrix