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anatomy test 1 notes and questions
Terms in this set (152)
Study of structure
two subdivisions of anatomy
Gross (macroscopic) - easily observed Microscopic - too small to be observed
Study of function of the body
two subdivisions of physiology
11 organ systems
Focuses on processes at a molecular level
Levels of structural organization
1.Chemical: Atoms and molecules
2. Cellular: Cells are the smallest unit of living things
3. Tissues: Groups of similar cells
4. Organs: Contains two or more tissue types
5. Organ System: Organs that work closely together
6. Organismal: All organ systems
skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair and nails
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Function
Protects underlying structures, Synthesizes vitamin D, Maintains body temperature
MUSCULAR SYSTEM Function
Movement, Maintains posture, Produces heat
Bones, joints, cartilage, ligaments
Skeletal System Function
Protects organs, Attachment sites for muscles, Formation of blood cells, Stores minerals - calcium
BRAIN, SPINAL CHORD, NERVES
NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTION
Control center, Responds to internal and external changes
heart and blood vessels
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Functions
Pumps blood, Transports oxygen, nutrients, waste, carbon dioxide
Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Lungs
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Functions
Gas exchange, Oxygen delivered to blood, Carbon Dioxide removed from blood
Oral Cavity, Esophagus, Liver, Stomach, small and large intestines, rectum and
Accessory organs - liver, gallbladder, salivary glands and pancreas
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Functions
Breaks down food into absorbable parts, Eliminates waste
URINARY (renal) SYSTEM
Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder, Urethra
URINARY (renal) SYSTEM Function
Eliminates nitrogenous waste, Regulates body water levels, Maintains blood electrolytes and acid-base balance
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Scrotum, Testes, Ductus Deferens, Penis
Glands - prostate, Seminal Vesicles, Bulbo-urethral gland
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Functions
Produce sperm and testosterone
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Functions
Ovaries produce egg, estrogen, progesterone
Mammary glands produce milk
Glands - Pineal, Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Thymus, Adrenal, Pancreas, Ovaries, Testes
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Functions
Regulate growth and metabolism
Lymphatic vessels, Thoracic Duct, Lymph Nodes, Red Bone Marrow and Spleen, Thymus Gland
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM Functions
Recaptures lost fluids from blood
Involved in immunity
Necessary Life Function 1
Maintaining boundaries between internal and external environments
Cell membranes Skin
Necessary Life Function 2
Movement (muscle contractions)
Of body parts (skeletal muscle)
Of substances (cardiac and smooth muscle)
Necessary Life Function 3
Ability to sense and respond to stimuli
Controlled by the nervous system
Necessary Life Function 4
Breakdown of ingested food
Absorption of simple molecules into blood
Necessary Life Function 5
All chemical reactions that occur in body cells
Catabolism - break down large molecules into smaller parts
Anabolism - build up large molecules from smaller parts
Necessary Life Function 6
Removal of wastes from metabolism and
Urea, carbon dioxide, feces
Necessary Life Function 7
Cell division for growth or repair
Production of offspring
Necessary Life Function 8
Increase in size of a body part or of organism
Hormones promote growth
Survival Need 1
Chemicals for energy and cell
Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins
Survival Need 2
Required for the production of ATP
Survival Need 3
Most abundant chemical in body
Provides the necessary environment for the bodies chemical reactions
Fluid base for secretions and excretions
Survival Need 4
Normal body temperature
Affects the rate of chemical reactions
If body temperature falls below normal, chemical reactions will slow or even stop leading to loss of function or death
If body temperatures rise above normal, chemical reactions will proceed too fast and their products (proteins) will break down leading to loss of function or death
Survival Need 5
Appropriate atmospheric pressure
The force exerted on the body by the weight of air
Required for adequate breathing and gas exchange in lungs
Regions of high altitude (lower atmospheric pressure) gas exchange will be slower, there will be less nutrients available for metabolic activities
the bodies ability to maintain an internal dynamic state of equilibrium, despite constant changes in the external environment.
Negative feedback definition
Response reduces or shuts off original stimulus
Variable changes in opposite direction of initial change
Standard anatomical body position
Body erect, upright
Feet slightly apart
Palms facing forward
thumbs away from body
Which of these is an example of physiology?
The liver produces many of the blood proteins
What organ system is responsible for breaking down food into molecules that can be absorbed by the body?
Which organ system is the slow-acting control system of the body?
the ability to sense changes in the environment and react to them
removing wastes from the body
all chemical reactions that occur in body cells
Which of these describes the effect of a negative feedback mechanism?
reduces the intensity of the initial stimulus
Which of the following is visible when viewing the front of a human body in anatomical position?
Which of these body parts is distal to the crural region?
Physical trauma to a body organ is known as blunt trauma. Which organs of the body account for 75 percent of all blunt trauma injuries?
abdominal cavity organs
Which of these is an example of maintaining boundaries?
The cell membrane controls the movement of substances into or out of the cell.
Which of these regions is distal to the antebrachial region?
Which of the following is an example of a homeostatic imbalance?
being sick with the flu
A microscopic image shows many cube-shaped cells forming a tube or duct. What level of structural organization is this?
The skin prevents the loss of body fluids from evaporation. Which function necessary for life does this describe?
What cavity is superior to the diaphragm?
Which term best characterizes the concept of homeostasis?
elatively stable internal environment
What is the overall effect of a negative feedback mechanism?
reduces or stops the initial stimulus
Which of these terms refers to a body area found on the dorsal surface?
Melanin is a protein pigment that protects us from ultraviolet radiation. What level of structural organization is the classification of melanin?
anything that occupies space and has mass (weight)
Solid, liquid or gas
stored in chemical bonds of substances
results from movement of charged particles
nergy directly involved in moving matter
travels in waves (energy of the electromagnetic spectrum - visible light, radio waves, X-rays)
Fundamental units of all matter
Cannot be broken down into smaller units by chemical means
May be single units called atoms or made of multiple identical atoms
the four elements that form the bulk of body matter
Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Hydrogen
Building blocks of all elements
Each atom is unique and different from every other atom
Atomic symbol is chemical shorthand for each element
two or more atoms of the same elements combined chemically
two or more atoms of different elements combined chemically to form a molecule of a compound
Each shell has distinct properties in an isotope
The number of electrons in each shell has an upper limit
Shells closest to the nucleus will fill first
Electrons in shells close to the nucleus are tightly held
Atoms become stable through shared electrons
Electrons are shared in pairs
Single covalent bonds share one pair of electrons
Double covalent bonds share two pairs of electrons
Which of these is an example of kinetic energy?
skeletal muscles contracting as a person lifts weights
Which statement best describes energy?
It does not have mass or occupy space.
Which of these statements reflects the relationship between elements, atoms, and chemical symbols?
Elements are composed of atoms.
An atomic symbol is __________.
a one- or two-letter abbreviation for an element
Which of these is a chemical symbol?
What is the number of neutrons in an atom with atomic mass of 35, three energy levels, and 7 valence electrons?
Which of these determines the chemical behavior of an atom?
electrons in the valence shell
Choose the best description for the term molecule.
two or more atoms combined chemically
A compound is defined as __________.
a molecule composed of two or more elements
What is the most accurate description of C6H12O6?
C6H12O6 is a compound
What type of chemical reaction is used by liver cells when synthesizing glycogen from glucose?
A salt is an ionic compound containing cations other than hydrogen and anions other than the hydroxyl ion. In writing the formula for a salt, the symbol of the cation is listed first, and the symbol for the anion is listed second. Which one of these is a salt?
Which of these events occurs when salts dissolve in body fluids?
They easily dissociate into their ions
What ion is found in bone, nucleic acids, and ATP?
What is the main type of lipid found in cellular membranes?
Which of the properties of water is most closely associated with the body's ability to maintain a relatively constant internal temperature?
high heat capacity
Nerve impulses involve the flow of an electrical current, a type of energy known as ________ energy.
Atoms that have lost or gained electrons are known as ________.
An atom's outermost shell is known as its ________ shell.
Elements are composed of building blocks known as ________.
Isotopes have different numbers of ________; thus they also have different ________.
neutrons; atomic masses
The subatomic particles that are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms are the ________.
Shell 1 of an atom can hold a maximum of ________ electron(s).
What type of bond is formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to another?
an ionic bond
At the beginning of glycolysis, ATP transfers a phosphate group to glucose. What type of chemical reaction is this?
Which of the following leads to an increase in the rate of a chemical reaction?
Polar molecules, like water, result when electrons are shared ________.
unequally between atoms
An acid is a molecule that releases (donates) ________.
protons (hydrogen ions)
Proteins are synthesized from ________ during synthesis reactions.
Unsaturated fatty acid chains contain one or more ________ bonds between carbon atoms.
A solution with a pH of 7 ________.
Which carbohydrate is also known as blood sugar?
The building blocks of a triglyceride are ________.
three fatty acid chains and one glycerol molecule
Which of the following DNA base pairs is complementary?
adenine and thymine
Enzymes are ________.
Identify the nucleic acid.
Nucleotides are composed of _______
a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base
in our body, many salts dissociate into their ions. Which ions are essential for nerve impulses?
sodium and potassium
In which category of organic molecules would you place compounds that catalyze chemical reactions?
Which of the following choices describes the structure of a nucleotide found in DNA?
deoxyribose sugar, nitrogen-containing base, phosphate group
What happens when body cells are placed in a hypertonic solution?
Water leaves the cells and the cells shrink.
What elements make up 96 percent of the body's weight?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
What part of the plasma membrane is hydrophobic?
What type of membrane junction allows ions to pass directly from the cytoplasm of one cell to the cytoplasm of the adjacent cell?
Which of these organelles is responsible for forming secretory vesicles?
In which cell stage does DNA replicate?
Which of the following molecules brings the appropriate amino acid to the ribosome during protein synthesis?
Which cell junctions prevent substances from passing between adjacent cells?
The final processing of proteins "tagged" for secretion occurs in which cellular organelle?
What process does a cell use to make an RNA copy of a segment of DNA?
Which type of muscle is characterized by the presence of striations and intercalated discs?
The structural and functional unit of all living things is the ________.
Which of the following statements is a component of the cell theory?
Cells arise from preexisting cells.
The membrane connections that prevent the leaking of fluid between cells are called ________.
___, a type of cell junction, anchor adjacent cells together and prevent cells from being pulled apart.
The three major components of the cytoplasm are the ________.
cytosol, organelles, and inclusions
The organelle that contains enzymes produced by ribosomes and packaged by the Golgi apparatus is the ________.
Peroxisomes detoxify harmful or poisonous substances, such as alcohol.
Chromatin and chromosomes are both composed of DNA.
Phospholipid tails are hydrophilic and are attracted to water.
perm are the only cells in the human body to possess cilia.
The movement of substances through the cell membrane against their concentration gradient is a type of ________ process.
The nucleotides of DNA join in a complementary way in which adenine pairs with ________ while cytosine pairs with ________.
The two steps of protein synthesis, in the correct order, are ________ and ________.
two types of endocytosis are ________.
phagocytosis and pinocytosis
A solution that contains fewer solutes than the cell is ________.
Which of the following processes require the use of protein carrier molecules?
facilitated diffusion and solute pumping
The correct order of phases of the mitosis is ________.
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Which of the following represents a segment of RNA?
________ glands possess ducts that transport secretions onto epithelial surfaces.
________ tissue is commonly called fat.
he presence of chondrocytes indicates that a tissue is ________.
Which of the following tissues is constructed of many collagen fibers?
Which of these characteristics best describes cardiac muscle tissue?
movement is involuntary and cells possess striations
The cell type found in nervous tissue is the ________.
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