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Ch 8 Test - 8EP Motion
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Gravity
Terms in this set (60)
Motion
change in position; the state in which one object's distance from another is changing
Reference Point
A place or object used for comparison to determine if something is moving or if an object is in motion
Relative Motion
Whether or not an object is in motion depends on the reference point
International System of Units (SI)
System used internationally by all scientists so communication can be clearer; the system of units (SI) used by scientists to measure the properties of matter
International System of Units (SI) example
Unit to measure length is the meter (m)
Speed Formula
distance/time
Speed Unit Examples
m/s OR km/hr
Average Speed Formula
total distance/total time
Instantaneous Speed
The speed of an object at one instant of time
Constant Speed
speed that does not change
Velocity
speed in a given DIRECTION
Velocities can
combine
Velocities in same direction
are added
Velocities in opposite direction
are subtracted
Graphing Motion
can be shown on a distance vs time graph
x-axis on motion graph
time
y-axis on motion graph
distance
Slope can tell you the...
rate of change
Steeper the slope the...
greater the speed
Acceleration formula
= Final Velocity-Initial Velocity / Final Time-Initial Time
Acceleration Unit Examples
m/s2 OR km/hr2
Positive Acceleration
Speeding up
Negative acceleration
slowing down or deceleration
Speed vs Time Graph steeper slanted straight line ascending
greater acceleration at a constant rate
Speed vs Time Graph slanted straight line ascending
means accelerating at a constant rate
Speed vs Time Graph slanted straight line descending (going down)
means deceleration at a constant rate(slowing down)
Distance vs Time Graph Curve line
means acceleration
Distance vs Time Graph slanted straight line ascending
means constant speed so no acceleration
Direct Graphing Relationship
as the value of X (the manipulated variable) gets larger, the value of Y (the responding variable) gets larger at a constant rate
Indirect (Inverse) Graphing Relationship
as the value of X (the manipulated variable) gets larger, the value of Y (the responding variable) gets smaller at a constant rate.
Limited Growth Graphing Relationship
as the value of X (the manipulated variable) gets larger, the value of Y (the responding variable) gets larger at a changing rate
Unlimited Growth Graphing Relationship
as the value of X (the manipulated variable) gets larger, the value of Y (the responding variable) gets larger at a changing rate
Inverse Square Graphing Relationship
as the value of X (the manipulated variable) gets larger, the value of Y (the responding variable) gets smaller at a changing rate.
Interpolation
-finding values from a line graph that lie b/w known data points
-Most accurate for information
Extrapolation
finding values from a line graph by extending the line in the same pattern past the known end data points
Interpolation vs. Extrapolation on the graph
Rules for Table Construction #1
-Table data should be listed in an orderly way.
-Largest to smallest or alphabetical order
Rules for Table Construction #2
The table needs a title and must have MV and RV
Ex. The Effect of "MV" on "RV"
Rules for Table Construction #3
Table is always enclosed in a box, title on outside
Rules for Table Construction #4
Divided into columns and rows
Rules for Table Construction #5
-Columns are identified by headings
-MV is always on the left and RV is always on the right
Rules for Table Construction #6
-Units are placed in the heading of each column not with the data and enclosed in parentheses
Rules for Table Construction #7
-Numerical data should be expressed uniformly
-All numbers (1, 2, 3...) or all words (one, two, three...)
Rules for Graph Construction #1
Must have a title (use the same one for the table)
Rules for Graph Construction #2
Label the horizontal axis as X and the vertical as Y
The x-axis on a graph is labeled as
MV
The y-axis on a graph is labeled as
RV
Rules for Graph Construction #3
The scale is a consistently increasing range of numbers
Scale Rules #1
Start with 0
Scale Rules #2
Use counting numbers 1, 2, or 5
How to find counting number
1. Subtract low data from high data
2. Divide by the # of data
3. Round to nearest counting # - (1, 2, or 5)
Rules for Graph Construction #4
The scale on the axis is uniform (the #s assigned to the lines increase by the same value for any one axis)
Rules for Graph Construction #5
The scales on the X and Y axis do not have to be the same, but the scale must be consistent within itself.
Rules for Graph Construction #6
The number of squares between the #s on the grid must be consistent.
Graph Construction Example
Meter
The basic SI unit of length
Speed
the distance an object travels per unit of time
Average Speed
the overall rate of speed at which an object moves; calculated by dividing the total distance an object travels by the total time.
Slope
the steepness of a line on a graph, equal to its vertical change divided by its horizontal change
Acceleration
The rate at which velocity changes
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