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Terms in this set (65)
Noticing a contradiction between beliefs and behaviors. Will make the person feel anxiety, quilt, shame or stress.
when small groups within a larger society maintain their uniquie cultural identity. Seeing value in all cultures.
the unintended consequences of people's actions that help keep a social system in equilibrium
cause and effect are intertwined "what goes around comes around" "vicious cycle"
intended and recognized
model that allows for the state to stand in the stead of a parent
a perspective that maintains simultaneous focus on person and environment and is attentive to their interactions and adaptions person-environment
small groups, families
communities, large organizations
systems outside the immediate area of analysis which may have an impact on it.
the supra system
the larger system that encompasses the other systems.
The process whereby the members of a society are sorted into different statuses.
persistent, developmentally -inappropriate pattern of behaviors. Prior to the age 7. Last for 6 months and apparent in at least two settings. More common in males. As adolescents, engage in more antisocial behaviors and drug use than their peers.
persistent pattern of behaviors that violate the rights of others and age appropriate social rules. 1. aggression to people and animals, bullies, threatens or intimidates others. IF over eighteen only diagnosed if criteria for antisocial personality disorder is not met.
repeated regurgitaiton, rechewing of food without apparent nausea or disgust
Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early child hood
disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness in most settings that begins prior to the age of five.
disturbance in consciousness. Change in cognition or development of perceptual abnormalities. Experiences reduced awareness of the environment, shifts in attention and distractibility. Disorientation to place and time.
Five subtypes of schizophrenia
paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, residual, undifferentiated.
gradual onset of symptoms and slow progressive decline in cognitive functioning. begins with deficits of memory and personality change or irritability. Diagnosed only when other causes of dementia have been ruled out. duration is until death.
Deterioration of intellectual abilities such as memory, concentration, reasoning, and judgment due to organic disease or brain damage. Emotional disturbances and personality changes often accompany the intellectual deterioration
Feeding disorder of infancy or early child hood
persistent failure to eat adequately for at least one month accompanied by a resulting failure to gain weight or substance weight loss.
Oppositional defiant disorder
recurrent pattern of negativistic, defiant and hostile behaviors toward authority figures. Loses temper, argues with adults, actively defies or challenges the rules or requests of adults, deliberately annoys people, blames others for their mistakes
characterized by impairment of social interaction and repetiitve patterns of innappropriate behavior
50-55 to 70
35-40 to 50-55. Academic level up to second grade.
Severe Mental Retardation
The person score between 20 and 35 on intelligence tests and about 3% to 4% of people with mental retardation are at this level. Generally speaking, they can't benefit from occupational training but they at least have a chance of being able to talk and implement easy work tasks with people watching over them.
Due to neurolocial condition below 20-25
achievement on a standardize test in reading, math and or written expresion is sbustantially below that expected for her age schooling and level of intelligence
onset before 3; three defining features: Qualitative impairment of social interaction, qualitative impairment of communication, restricted, repetitive, stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities
lack of warmth in a parent child relationship
Child hood disintegrative disorder
development regression in multiple areas of functining flowwing at least two years of normal development
initiative versus guilt
In Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of early childhood, which is resolved positively through play experiences that foster a healthy sense of initiative and through development of a superego, or conscience, that is not overly strict and guilt-ridden.
term that describes motivations that derive from one's interest in the object of the motivation, rather than from rewards that one might gain
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
feeling against someone/something, dislike
Nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming that social connection between the victim and others.
A parenting style in which the parents are demanding, expect unquestioned obedience, are not responsive to their children's desires, and communicate poorly with their children.
style of parenting marked by submitting to children's desires, making few demands, and using little punishment
a style of parenting marked by making demands on the child, being responsive, setting and enforcing rules, and discussing the reasons behind the rules
One of Freuds three central personality structures, roughly equivalent to the conscience. In Freudian theory, the superego contains societal standards of behavior, particularly rules that children learn from identifying with their parents. The superego attempts to control id impulses.
preconventional moral reasoning
in Kohlberg's theory is typical of children younger than 9 years of age where moral reasoning is directed toward avoiding punishment and following rules to one's own advantage
conventional moral reasoning
in Kohlberg's theory is moral reasoning characterized by concern for others due to social obligations such as caring for one's spouse and family
postconventional moral reasoning
in Kohlberg's theory is the highest level of moral reasoning based on personal or universal standards of justice, equality, and respect for human life
Freud's term for middle childhood, during which children's emotional drives are quieter, the psychosexual needs are repressed, and their unconscious conflicts are submerged.
industry versus inferiority
The fourth of Erikson's eight psychosexual development crises, during which children attempt to master many skills, developing a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent.
identity versus diffusion
Erikson's term for the fifth stage of development, in which the person tries to figure out "who am I?" but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt
Erikson's term for the attainment of identity, or the point at which a person understands who he or she is as an individual, in accord with past experiences and future plans
Erikson's term for premature identity formation, which occurs when an adolescent adopts parent's or society's roles and values wholesale, without questioning and analysis
trust vs mistrust
Erikson's first stage during the first year of life, infants learn to trust when they are cared for in a consistent warm manner
A theory that underlies the values and practices of a culture and that becomes apparent though analysis and comparison of those practices, although it is not usually apparent to the people within the culture
Intimacy versus Isolation
Erikson's sixth stage of development. Adults see someone with whom to share their lives in an eduring and self-sacrificing commitment. Without such commitment, they risk profound aloneness and isolation.
Erickson sees 8 stages of development characterized by psychological conflicts that must be resolved for healthy development to occur
Ecological Systems Theory
Brofenbrenner views child as developing within a complex system of relationships from microsystem to macrosystem
Called the father of behaviorism, he claimed that a psychologist's only interest should be in observable behavior.
Social Cultural Theory
Vgotsky views cognitive development as a socially mediated process where adult support (called scaffolding) helps children master skills they can't do on their own
2 to about 6 or 7 years representing things with words and images use intuitive rather than logical reasoning
From about age 7 to about adolescence; characterized by the ability to think logically about concrete objects & situations
Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development, from age 11 or 12 and beyond, when the individual begins to think more rationally and systematically about abstract concepts and hypothetical events. Thought is abstract and hypothetical. Logical thought. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Idealism (understand love and justice). Imaginary audience (others are evaluating as much as you evaluate yourself)
piagets 4 stages of development
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
the amount by which a number differs from an average or other comparable value
measures the degree of dispersion or scatter (ex: observations clustered close to the average, this is small; but this is large if the observations are dispersed widely around the average
A mood disorder characterized by moderate but frequent mood swings that are not severe ehough to qualify as bipolar disorder
How an action affect the greater good, not just the single person.
Cross Sequential Studies
combine both longitudinal and cross sectional methods in an attempt to both shorten the length of the research and minimize developmental assumptions, so has the benefits of both the other two methods.