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Terms in this set (33)
Anglo-Saxon ideals? (12)
courage, fierce personal valor, physical strength, loyalty to leader, right to boast of brave deeds, courtesy to people of rank, generosity of the ruler to loyal warriors, awareness of the shortness of life, strong influence of an impersonal fate upon everything, open meetings, belief in supernatural, highly developed feeling for beauty
Example of courage?
Example of fierce personal valor?
Beowulf when he fights dragon
Example of physical strength?
Example of loyalty to leader?
Wiglaf, when Geats wait for Beowulf to resurface after fighting Grendel's mother
Example of right to boast of great deeds?
Beowulf especially at his old age when he says that only he can defeat the dragon and when he says he will not hide behind weapons but rather use his bare hands
Example of the awareness of the shortness of life?
The Wanderer when he says "the foundation of earth shall fail"
Example of strong influence of an impersonal fate?
"The Seafarer" says "Fate is stronger...than any man's mind"; Beowulf's last battle stresses how fate was against him
Anglo-Saxon writing techniques? (9)
oral tradition, function of the scop, strong beat and alliteration, heroic tradition (epic), elegiac tradition (lyrics), Christian elements, Pagan elements, use of Latin by Church scribes, early chronicles
Example of heroic tradition?
Example of Christian elements?
in "The Wanderer" which ends with Amen, Beowulf with references to the Bible story of creation
Elements of Anglo-Saxon culture?
environment background setting, social background, religion, characteristics of a hero, attitude toward the supernatural, role of the king or ruler, funeral customs
Example of environment background setting?
Example of social background?
patriarchy (Wife's Lament), warrior society in Beowulf and importance of genealogy
Example of religion?
in Beowulf and the Seafarer
What are the characteristics of a legendary or epic hero (Beowulf)?
larger-than-life; of noble birth, represents his nation (Gaets); figure of noble personality, considerable military prowess, undying virtue, boastful self-confidence; victories in battle against evil; upholds values of his culture: loyalty, bravery, honor
Example of the role of the king or ruler?
Beowulf himself or ruler of the Danes where they must protect their people
Example of funeral customs?
when Beowulf dies, he is placed on the funeral pyre; also asks to have tower built for him
What are caesuras?
pauses for breath in the middle of lines
What are the lines of Anglo-Saxon poems like?
regular rhythms with four strong beats for easy memorization
two word poetic renamings like "whales' home" for the sea
repeated vowel sounds in unrhymed, stressed syllables
repeated initial consonant sounds in stressed syllables
a poem mourning the loss of someone or something like The Wife's Lament, The Seafarer, and The Wanderer
long, dangerous journey undertaken by epic hero which is his opportunity to win honor (Beowulf traveling to neighboring kingdom)
actions that demonstrate the hero's courage, strength, or virtue (Beowulf fighting Grendel with his bare hands)
help from a god or another supernatural force who takes an interest in his quest
important events from history or mythology of a nation
stories about heroes that were recited or sung as entertainment and passed down orally (Beowulf)
written by individual authors, drawing on the style and conventions of the folk epic
certain literary or formal characteristics in epics
Examples of epic conventions? (9)
opens by stating subject or purpose followed by invocation of a muse or supernatural force; begins in medias res (in the middle of things); serious in tone and lofty in style (like long speeches by hero) which conveys the importance of events; epic hero battling evil; lengthy; catalogs/genealogies; supernatural involvement; voyage across sea; epic battles
long narrative poem sometimes developed orally that celebrates heroic deeds and legendary events
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