Cultural Anthropology Chapter 4

LSU's Cultural Anthropology 1003
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Terms in this set (...)

Call System
a form of animal communication composed of a limited number of sounds that are tied to specific stimuli in the environment
Universal Grammar
a basic set of principles, conditions, and rules that form the foundation of all languages
Symbol
something that stands for something else. Central to language and culture.
Conventionality
the notion that, is human language, words are only arbitrarily or conventionally connected to the things for which they stand
Productivity
(linguistics) the idea that humans can combine words and sounds into new, meaningful utterances they have never before heard
Displacement
the capacity of all human languages to describe things not happening in the present
Phonology
the sound system of a language
Morphology
a system for creating words from sounds
Semantics
the system of a language that relates words to meaning
Syntax
a system of rules for combining words into meaningful sentences
Phone
smallest identifiable unit of sound made by humans and used in any language
phoneme
the smallest unit of sound that serves to distinguish between meanings of words within a language
Minimal Pair
two words that differ in only one sound but have different meanings
Allophones
two or more different allophones that can be used to make the same phoneme in a specific language
Morpheme
the smallest unit of language that has meaning
Isolating Language
a language with relatively few morphemes per word and fairly simple rules for combining them
Agglutinating Language
a language that allows a great number of morphemes per word and has highly regular rules for combining morphemes
Lexicon
the total stock of words in a language
Sociolinguists
the study of the relationship between language and culture and the ways language is used in varying social contexts
Code-switching
moving seamlessly and appropriately between two different languages
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
the hypothesis that perceptions and understandings of time, space, and matter are conditioned by the structure of a language
Artifacts
(in communications studies) communication by clothing, jewelry, tattoos, piercings, and other visible body modifications
Haptics
the analysis and study of touch
Chronemics
the study of different ways that cultures understand time and use it to communicate
Proxemics
the study of the cultural use of interpersonal space
Kinesics
the study of body position, movement, facial expressions, and gaze
Great Vowel Shift
a change in the pronunciation of English language that took place between 1400 and 1600
Comparative Linguistics
the science of documenting the relationships between languages and grouping them into language families
Core Vocabulary
a list of 100 or 200 terms that designate things, actions, and activities likely to be named in all the world's languages
Glottochronology
a statistical technique that linguists have developed to estimate the date of separation of related languages