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33 terms

AP Vocabulary unit #1

AP Vocabulary unit #1
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anatomy
study of structure
physiology
study of functions of living organism and its parts

how the body works
acid
substance that ionizes in water to release hydrogen ions; substance with a pH of less than 7
acidosis
the condition in which there is an excessive proportion of acid in the blood and thus an abnormally low blood pH.

opposite of alkalosis
alkalosis
condition in which there is an excessive proportion of alkali (base) in the blood

opposit of acidosis
aponeurosis
broad, flat sheet of connective tissue
articulation
joint
atrophy
wasting away of tissue; decrease in size of part;
a=with and trophy=food
base
substance that ionizes in water to decrease the number of hydrogen ions

aka = alkaline
buffer
compound that combines with an acid or with a base to form a weaker acid or base, thereby lessening the change in hydrogen ion concentration that would occur w/o the buffer
crenation
The condition or state of being crenate.

A process resulting from osmosis in which red blood cells, in a hypertonic solution, shrink and acquire a scalloped surface.
enzyme
biochemical catalystthat allows chemical reactions to take place; functional proteinsthat regulate various metabolic pathways of the body
fatigue
Physiology . temporary diminution of the irritability or functioning of organs, tissues, or cells after excessive exertion or stimulation.
goblet cells
gland that produces mucus. ex. respiratory & digestive

epithelial cell that produces and secretes large amounts of mucus
hemolysis
The destruction of red blood cells, caused by disruption of the cell membrane and resulting in the release of hemoglobin. Hemolysis is seen in some types of anemia, which can be either inherited or acquired, as by exposure to toxins or by the presence of antibodies that attack red blood cells.
hemopoiesis
the formation of blood or of blood cells in the living body
hypertrophy
increased size of an organ or part caused by an increase in the size of its cells
inorganic
chemical constituents that do not contain both carbon and hydrogen

does not contain C to C or C to H bond
ex. water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, electrolytes
insertion
attachment of a muscle to the bone that it moves when contraction occurs
compare to origin

the mode or place of attachment of an organ or part
a section of genetic material inserted into an existing gene sequence
the mutational process producing a genetic insertion
lyse
to cause dissolution or destruction of cells by lysins.

to undergo lysis.
melanin
brown pigment primarily in skin and hair
organic
referring to chemicals that contain covalently bound carbon and hydrogen atoms and are involved in metabolic reactions
origin
attachment of a muscle to the bone, which does not move when contraction occurs

compare to insertion
ossification
bone formation
paralysis
loss of power of motion, especially voluntary motion
pH
units by which acid and base concentrations (relative H+ ion concentrations) are measured; scale ranges from 0 (extremely acidic, high H+ concentration) to 14 (extremely basic or alkaline, low H+ concentration)
posture
position of the body; often refers to the erect position of the body maintained unconsciously
regeneration
process of replacing missing tissue with new tissue by means of cell division
sinus
space or cavity
stimulus
excitant or irritating agent that induces a response
subcutaneous
(hyperdermis) beneath skin,not part of skin
connects skin to lower layers
tendon
bands or cords of fibrous connective tissue that attach a muscle to a bone or other structure
tone
a. the normal state of tension or responsiveness of the organs or tissues of the body.
b. that state of the body or of an organ in which all its functions are performed with healthy vigor.
c. normal sensitivity to stimulation