36 terms

Chapter 3.6 Economic Development - Water

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Water deficit
A situation where available water supplies do not meet all the needs of local people. Another word for shortage of water
Water transfer
The movement of water from an area of surplus to one having a shortage
Aquifers
A layer of porous rock which stores underground water
Accessing water sources
Desalination plants, lakes and rivers, aquifers, large-scale rainwater harvesting, small-scale rainwater harvesting
wells
A structure, which is dug or drilled to access groundwater that is brought to the surface using a pump or a container
Grey water
Water which has already been used but not been "treated"(cleaned)
Bore holes
A shaft in the ground containing a pipe to allow the extraction of water
Ghana hasn't the wealth to provide a large amount
of drinking water for all of its villages
All families around the world
don't have enough water to meet all of their needs
ways in which people can use water sparingly, in more sustainable ways
car-washing by hand, drip-feed irrigation, taking a shower, washing dishes by hand
water used to produce one paper page
10 litres
Agriculture and industry use
huge amounts of water
a slice of bread takes
40 litres to make
a pair of jeans takes almost
11 000 litres to make
It takes 1300 litres of water to
grow 1 kg of wheat, but twelve times as much to produce 1 kg of beef
Canada 68% of national water used
for domestic activities in which country
1 billion people struggle to get enough water to meet their basic needs, this means that
is one in every seven people on Earth
The number of people who are permanently short of clean drinking water seems likely
to rise to at least 4 billion by 2050
The main problem facing people with no clean water is
accessing it
Rain doesn't fall
where it is most needed
99 % of all freshwater on Earth is
stored in rocks deep underground
water transfer using pipes and aqueducts has been practised for centuries, cities like
Los Angeles now transfer water over 300 km in order to meet their needs
Many places that already experience a deficit are likely to face even greater water supply problems in the future. This is mainly due to
population increase and people using more water as their standard of living rises
lakes and rivers main sources
of easily accessible water
Aquifers water is extracted using
bore holes
Desalination plants are only affordable by oil rich states in
Middle East
The world's demand for water is rising by
175 litres every day
Lake Nasser is the world's largest artificial lake. It extends
100 km south of Egypt into another country, North Sudan
this is a way of saving small amounts of water for future use. Local people build small earth or stone dams across a river or stream to hold back any rainwater
water harvesting
Water harvesting allows
farmers to irrigate their crops and so increase crop yields
water harvesting treated can
be drank
An aquifer becomes depleted when
more water is extracted from it than can be replaced naturally
The aquifer beneath the Indian states of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana is becoming seriously smaller at a rate of
1 metre every three years because so many people are using the water in the aquifer
The region of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana has a population
of 20 million
Together the White Nile and the Blue Nile and their tributaries pass
through 10 countries
The Blue Nile brings
floodwater and fertile sediment from the Ethiopian Highlands after snow-melt and heavy rainfall there in summer
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