73 terms

Interpersonal Communication 1500 - Test 1

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Social penetration theory
The theory describes understanding people is similar to peeling an onion as people share different information about themselves at different layers. Each layer of an individual reveals different characteristics.
Interpersonal process model of intimacy
The closeness we feel towards others is created by self-disclosure and responsiveness to the disclosure.
Self-discrepancy theory
Self-esteem comes from the difference in one's ideal self and ought self, person others and you expect to be.
Fundamental attribution error
Attributing others' behaviors based on internal attributes.
Actor-observer effect
Blaming external attributions for our own behavior.
Self-serving bias
The tendency to attribute one's own success to internal attributes.
Uncertainty reduction theory
The desire to uncover information about individuals in unfamiliar communication situations whether through passive or active means.
Positivity bias
Tendency for first impressions to be more positive than negative.
Negativity effect
Tendency to place emphasis on the negative information we learn about others.
Halo effect
Because you have a positive gestalt of someone, you have the tendency to interpret anything another says or does in a favorable light.
Horn effect
Because you have a negative gestalt of someone, you tend to interpret anything another says or does in a negative light.
Algebraic impressions
Impressions of others that change as we add and subtract positive or negative information that we learn about someone.
Communication
Process through which people use messages to create meaning within and across contexts, cultures, channels, and media.
Linear Communication Model
Info flows in 1 direction. This model features: sender, message, channel, and receiver.
Interactive Communication Model
Expands on linear model with feedback and fields of experience.
Transactional Communication Model
Views communication as multidirectional as each person has equal influence over one another.
Interpersonal communication
is dynamic, transactional, dyadic, and creates impact.
Conveys content, relationship info, or meta-communication
Can be intentional or unintentional
Irreversible
Always changing
I-Thou
Offering the same attention to others that we provide to ourselves.
I-it
Regard others as objects
Interpersonal communication competence
Communicating effectively, ethically, and appropriately.
Appropriate: Matching situational, cultural, and relational normal.
Ethics: Moral principles that guide our behaviors
Effective: Ability to accomplish goals
Ethics of interpersonal communication
Self
3 parts: self-esteem, self-concept, self-awareness.
Self-awareness
Ability to view yourself objectively as a unique person and reflect on your thoughts and behaviors.
Self-concept
Your overall perception of who you are based on beliefs, attitudes, and values.
Self-esteem
The positive or negative value we assign ourselves.
Social comparison
Observing and assigning meaning to others' behaviors and then comparing their behaviors to ours.
Looking-glass self
We define our self-concepts based on how others see us.
Sources of Self
Gender: Learned social, cultural, psychological attributes as M or F
Family Communication Culture: Established set of beliefs, attitudes, and values
Attachment Anxiety
Degree to which a person fears rejection
Attachment Avoidance
Degree to which a person desires close interpersonal ties
Four Attachment Styles
Face
The self we allow others to see and know
Mask
The public self designed to strategically veil your private self.
Intimacy
Feeling of closeness and union that exists between us and our relationship partners.
Johari Window
Self-disclosure
Revealing private information about yourself
Perception
Process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information.
Selection
Focusing attention on certain sights, smells, touches, tastes.
Salience
Degree to which people or aspects of their communication attract our attention.
Organization
Structuring information into a coherent pattern
Punctuation
Structuring information into a chronological pattern.
Interpretation
Assign meaning to info one has selected.
Schemata
Mental structures that contain information defining the characteristics of various concepts.
Attributions
Rationales we create to explain people's behaviors.
Passive Strategies
Observe how others interact with others to learn about someone.
Active Strategies
Asking other people questions about someone you're interested in
Interactive Strategies
Asking directly the person one is interested in.
Ingroupers
People that are considered fundamentally similar to yourself
Outgroupers
People that are considered different from yourself
Personality
An individual's characteristics way of thinking, feeling, and acting, which is represented by the acronym OCEAN.
Implicit personality theories
Personal beliefs about different types of personalities and the ways in which traits cluster.
Interpersonal impressions
Mental pictures of who people are and how we feel about them.
Gestalt
General sense of a person that's either positive or negative.
Stereotyping
Over simplistic interpersonal impressions.
Empathy
Perspective-taking: Ability to see things from someone else's view.
Empathic concern: Becoming aware of how the other person is feeling
Perspective-checking
5 step process of checking your punctuation, knowledge, attributions, perceptual influences, and impressions.
Emotion-sharing
Disclosing emotions.
Emotional contagion
Spread of emotions rapidly from person to person.
Feelings
Short term emotional reactions to events that generate limited arousal.
Moods
Low intensity states that are not caused by particular events and last longer than emotions or feelings.
Primary emotions
Unique and consistent behavioral displays. The six are surprise, joy, disgust, anger, fear, and sadness.
Blended emotions
Combination of primary emotions
Emotional intelligence
Ability to interpret emotions accurately, manage emotions, communicate them well, and solve relationship problems.
Emotion management
Attempts to influence which emotions you have, when you have them, and how you experience and express them.
Suppression
Inhibiting thoughts, arousal, and outward behavioral displays of emotions.
Venting
Allowing emotions to dominate your thoughts and explosively expressing them.
Encounter Avoidance
Staying away from people, places, activities that will provoke unwanted emotions.
Encounter Structuring
Intentionally avoiding specific topics you know will provoke unwanted emotions during encounters with others.
Attention Focus
Devoting your attention only to aspects of an event or encounter that will not provoke an undesired emotion.
Deactivation
Systematically desensitizing yourself to emotional experience to prevent unwanted emotions.
Reappraisal
Actively changing how you think about the meaning of emotional situations
Chronic hostility
Near constant state of arousal and negative thinking
Catharsis
Openly expressing emotions allows one to purge them
Jefferson strategy
A strategy to handle anger by counting to ten.
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