A large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units, called monomers, covalently joined together in a chain
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins
condensation reaction/dehydration reaction
a reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule, usually water
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
Type of lipid, A long, straight hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group attached at one end. Three of these linked to a glycerol molecule form fat.
a type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached
A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids
A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides)
A biological compound consisting of three faty acids linked to one glycerol molecule
A polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA.
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses)
A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water; an essential process in digestion
One of a family of compounds, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that are insoluble in water
Has a six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms. The members of this family are cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U)
A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by b-1, 4-glycosidic linkages
A structural polysaccharide of an amino sugar found in many fungi and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods
The covalent bond between two amino acid units, formed by a dehydration reaction/condensation synthesis
Are larger (than pyrimidines), with the six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring. Examples are adenine (A) and guanine (G)
A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids
An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. They serve as the monomers of proteins.