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AP bio chap 5

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polymer
A large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units, called monomers, covalently joined together in a chain
monomer
The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer
double helix
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
RNA
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses
DNA
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins
condensation reaction/dehydration reaction
a reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule, usually water
starch
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose
glycogen
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
nucleotide
The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
monosaccharide
a simple sugar that is the basic subunit, or monomer, of a carbohydrate
fatty acid
Type of lipid, A long, straight hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group attached at one end. Three of these linked to a glycerol molecule form fat.
steroid
a type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached
cholesterol
A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids
polysaccharide
A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions
carbohydrate
A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides)
triacylglycerol
A biological compound consisting of three faty acids linked to one glycerol molecule
nucleic acid
A polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA.
gene
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses)
disaccharide
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis
hydrolysis
A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water; an essential process in digestion
lipid
One of a family of compounds, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that are insoluble in water
pyrimidine
Has a six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms. The members of this family are cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U)
ribose
The sugar component of RNA nucleotides
cellulose
A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by b-1, 4-glycosidic linkages
chitin
A structural polysaccharide of an amino sugar found in many fungi and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods
peptide bond
The covalent bond between two amino acid units, formed by a dehydration reaction/condensation synthesis
purine
Are larger (than pyrimidines), with the six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring. Examples are adenine (A) and guanine (G)
protein
A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids
polypeptide
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
amino acid
An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. They serve as the monomers of proteins.
primary structure
The level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.