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ISC 261 // AP STYLE J-S

Terms in this set (66)

Plural Nouns Not Ending in S: Add 'S: the alumni's contributions

Plural Nouns Ending In S: Add only an apostrophe: the churches' needs

Nouns Plural In Form, Singular In Meaning: Add only an apostrophe: mathematics' rules

Apply the same principle when a plural word occurs in the formal name of a singular entity: General Motors' profits

Nouns The Same In Singular and Plural: Treat them the same as plurals, even if the meaning is singular: one corps' location

Singular Nouns Not Ending In S: Add's: the church's needs
Some style guides say that singular nouns ending in s sounds such as ce, x and z may take either the apostrophe alone or 's. (see especially expressions)

Singular Common Nouns Ending In S: Add's: the hostess's invitation

Singular Proper Names Ending In S: Use only apostrophe: Achilles' heel

Special Expressions: The following exceptions to the general rule for words not ending in s apply to worshippers that end in an s sounds and are followed by a word that begins with s: for appearance' sake

Pronouns: Personal interrogative and relative pronouns have separate forms for the possessive. None involve an apostrophe: mine, ours, yours
Caution: If you are using an apostrophe with a pronoun, always double-check to be sure that the meaning calls for a contraction: you're, it's, there's

Compound Words: Applying the rules about, add an apostrophe r 's to the word closest to the object possessed: the major general's decision

Joint Possession, Individual Possession: Use a possessive form after only the last word if ownership is joint: Fred and Sylvia's apartment
Use a possessive form after both words if the objects are individually owned: Fred's and Sylvia's books.

Descriptive Phrases: Do not add an apostrophe to a word ending in S when it is used primarily in a descriptive sense: citizens band radio

Descriptive Names: Some governmental, corporate and institutional organizations with a descriptive word in their names use an apostrophe; some do not. Follow the user's practice: Actors' Equity

Quasi Possessives: Follow the rules about in composing the possessive form of words that occur in such phrases as day's pay, two weeks' vacation, three days' work, your money's worth

Double Possessive: Two conditions must apply for a double possessive - a phrase such as friend of John's - to occur: 1. The word after of must refer to an animate object, and 2. The word before of must must involve only a portion of the animate object's possessions.

Inanimate Objects: There is no blanket rule against creating a possessive form for an inanimate object, particularly if the object is treated in a personified sense.

In general, however, avoid excessive personalization of inanimate objects, and give preference to an of construction when it fits the makeup of the sentence. For example, the earlier references to mathematics' rules
Spell Out: The names of the 50 U.S. states should be spelled out when used in the body of a story, whether standing alone or in conjunction with a city, town, village or military base.

Eight Not Abbreviated: The names of eight states are never abbreviated in datelines or text: Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas and Utah.
Memory Aid: Spell out the names of the two states that are not part of the contiguous United States and of the continental states that are five letters or fewer.

In The Body Of Stories: Except for cities that stand alone in datelines, use the state name in textual material when the city or town is not in the same state as the dateline, or where necessary to avoid confusion: Springfield, Massachusetts, or Springfield, Illinois.

Abbreviations Required: Following are the state abbreviations, which also appear in the entries for each state (postal code abbreviations in parentheses)

Ala. (AL)
Ariz. (AZ)
Ark. (AR)
Calif. (CA)
Colo. (CO)
Conn. (CT)
Del. (DE)
Fla. (FL)
Md. (MD)
Mass. (MA)
Mich. (MI)
Minn. (MN)
Miss. (MS)
Mo. (MO)
Mont. (MT)
Neb. (NE)
N.D. (ND)
Okla. (OK)
Ore. (OR)
Pa. (PA)
R.I. (RO)
S.C. (SC)
S.D. (SD)
Tenn. (TN)
Ga. (GA)
Ill. (IL)
Ind. (IN)
Kan. (KS)
Ky. (KY)
La. (LA)
Nev. (NV)
N.H. (NH)
N.J. (NJ)
N.M. (NM)
N.Y. (NY)
N.C. (NC)
Vt. (VT)
Va. (VA)
Wash. (WA)
W. Va. (WV)
Wis. (WI)
Wyo. (WY)

These are the postal code abbreviations for the eight states that are not abbreviated in datelines or text: AK (Alaska), HI (Hawaii), ID (Idaho), IA (Iowa), ME (Maine), OH (Ohio), TX (Texas), UT (Utah). Also: District of Columbia (DC)