geography of surfing midterm 3
Terms in this set (92)
what does territoriality involve? and what is this called in surfing?
involves attempts to regulate the actions of other people. In surfing this is called localism
What is localism characterized by?
characterized by active defense of territory and is a ritualized display/intents to fight
What do male intrusions lead to?
What are the geographic boundary regions?
thematic and functional (both are imprecise boundaries)
cognitive and administrative
What is a cognitive geographic region?
regions in the mind, informal, can be shared
What is a administrative geographic region?
defined by law or treaty
this is an outlier of all the boundaries
How do we regulate personal space?
based on interactions, situations, mood, culture, etc....
what does privacy entail?
regulating access to oneself
What is behavior?
actions or reactions to external stimuli
what is perception? and what are the sensory systems?
knowledge acquisition through the senses
Sensory systems: vision, hearing, smelling, tasting, pressure, texture, etc...
what is cognition? and what are the cognitive functions?
knowledge acquisition, storage/retrieval.
Cognitive functions: sensation/perception, thinking, imagery, reasoning, problem-solving, memory, learning, and language.
what is orientation?
knowing where you are and where to go
what is navigation?
coordinated route through space
what are cognitive maps?
internal representation of the world and its spacial properties
what is "cash localism"?
"pay to play" you pay to surf/gain access to a certain break or spot
What are some of the positives of localism?
1. get kooks out of the way, non-locals out of the lineup
2. restricts lineup to experienced surfers
3. regulates crowding
4. highlights local culture and traditions
5. keep beach clean
What are some of the negatives of localism?
1. keeps experienced surfers from experiencing new spots
2. difficult for beginners to learn
3. gives ppl who don't participate in localism a bad name
4. removes the stoke from surfing
5. causes property damage and hospital bills
6. causes unnecessary distraction from lineup
what are the alternative theories that may explain territoriality?
Sociobiology (Genetic heritage or acculturation) economics (Public goods and externalities)
ethics (strategic games, game theory)
What is the theory of sociobiology?
social interaction and behavior has a strong genetic evolutionary component
Sociobiology: what did Wilson believe?
he believed that all behavior is derived from natural selection/gene reproduction
Sociobiology: In the Theory of Feeding Strategies what creates territorial equilibrium?
when the rates of invasion and expulsion are plotted against invader
Are reef breaks of beach breaks harder to defend?
Beach breaks are harder defend because it takes more energy to patrol.
Reef breaks are spatially defined which makes it easier
What are the problems with sociobiology theory?
mechanical, cognition, and policy
What do economics in territoriality define?......?
defines when government should intervene, explicit behavioral assumptions for individuals and ethical/theory base for choice among competing policies
Economics(territoriality): what are economic models?
allocation of goods / services, allocation is optimal when ...
assumptions on prices, uncertainty, market structure
market supply and market demand
what are public economics?
allocations under restricted assumptions
are waves more rival with a higher density or lower density?
Externalities: price mechanism is not reflective of
social costs. what happens without intervention?
With no localism: what is a formal independent cost for surfing?
surfboard, wax, food, leash, wetsuit, etc...
With no localism: what is a formal dependent cost for surfing?
transportation cost... gas money, car maintenance, etc
With no localism: what is an informal dependent cost for surfing?
uncertainty about crowding conditions and wave conditions, time costs
With increased price costs due to localism: what is a formal dependent cost?
medical bills, property damage
With increased price costs due to localism: what is a informal dependent cost?
psychic costs (will it be possible to get waves, fear)
What do ethics in localism mean?
how we should act towards fellow surfers, how we should act towards the surf environment
Ethics in localism: Hardin's Tragedy of the Commons, what are the concepts?
self-interest versus community
uncertainty and reciprocity
ethical prescription: assume reciprocity
Ethics in localism: Alternative: Game Theory, what are the concepts?
Equilibrium under alternative assumptions
Robust or fragile equilibrium (violence)
Ethical Code: Tribal Law, Surf riders Code of Ethics, what are the first 5 rules?
1. Right of way priority A. Furthest out or waiting the longest
2. Right of way priority B. Furthest inside and closest to the peak
3. Right of way priority C. First to feet or first on wave
4. Right of way priority D. Call left or right (communicate)
5. Do not snake or drop in
Ethical Code: Tribal Law, Surf riders Code of Ethics, what are the last 5 rules?
6. Paddle wide using the rip
7. If caught inside, stay in the white water
8. Do not throw, or let go of, your board
9. Respect the beach, the ocean, and others
10. Give respect to gain respect
How are ethical norms taught?
through dialog and shunning
What is Topophila?
strong community attachment, love of a place
would the location of surfers amongst themselves be relative or absolute location?
while surfers are waiting for waves, the relative location of surfers to each other may reflect both skill levels and power relations with respect to wave selection/priority
what is site?
site takes the absolute location coordinates and expands it to include natural environment characteristics. Site would include climate, geology, etc...
What is situation?
Same as site but the only difference is that situation is often used to describe how a place is attached to other places through social, economic, or cultural ties
what is place and what does it emphasize?
place is similar to absolute situation but it emphasizes the human cultural landscape
In which direction does a swell have to be coming from to reach the south coast?
we need a west swell (arriving from 270 degrees), for swells directions 300 degrees or more the wave energy passes by our coastline.
how is swell energy lost?
radial dispersion and circumferential dispersion
is relative distance measured as physical distance?
no, measured through social, economic and mental construct. Ex) two surf breaks may be close in distance but if you're a local in one break and not the other, the other could be measured in psychic distance
What characterizes expansion diffusion?
cultural trait expands from original location to surrounding locations but the trait is still strongest in the original location
what characterizes relocation diffusion?
trait moves from one place to another but dies out in the original location
what characterizes contagious diffusion?
through direct contact the trait is passed along, more intense in the original location
what characterizes hierarchal diffusion?
trait is spread through a network, not every town (city, place, country, etc..) is impacted
Sociobiology: what is important in surfing localism?
search and locate
Sociobiology: what does search and locate entail?
1. Decomposes components of competition
2. Intersection of lines that defines equilibrium density of non locals in the lineup
3. formalizes topography (area and perimeter)
what are the characteristics of natural environment incorporated into?
The theory of feeding
economics of surfing: what is the supply and what is the demand?
supply: waves, but there is no price mechanism to create more supply
demand: what's the price for me to surf? must buy board, wetsuit, leash, wax, etc...
The solution to crowding and territoriality under the Tragedy of the Commons framework is to appeal to the ethical norm and to assume...
what does liminal mean?
movement, to be on the thresh hold about something, to pass through
what is territoriality in nonhumans characterized by?
1. biologically innate, proximally stimulated by hormones and particular sights, sounds, smells
2. serves multiple functions
3. characterized by marking, displays, active defense
what is territoriality in humans characterized by?
1. biological innateness of territoriality in humans debated
2. marking, displays, active defense
3. appeasement and submission gestures and postures
4. territorial intrusion does not require physical presence of body
What are the functions of human territoriality?
1. regulates aggression and conflict
2. Organizes social, political, and cultural systems
3. resource control
4. regulates mates
5. contributes to expression of dominance and status
6. helps with group and self identification
7. controls and predicts social interaction
what are concepts closely related to territoriality: region and space
1. regions are pieces of earth surface (place is a modest sized-region)
2. types of regions: thematic, functional, cognitive, administrative
3. all have boundaries but often very vague or imprecise
4. territory as administrative region
5. territory as cognitive region
what are concepts closely related to territoriality: personal space
1. the regulation of space around one's body
2. ethological conception with nonhuman animals
3. in humans, again, genetic tendency to regulate but no fixed size or shape of bubble, or effects of invasions
what are concepts closely related to territoriality: crowding
1. excess density of people
2. species-specific optimal density—some species very high!
3. spatial density vs. interaction density
(ex, former is high in crowds of strangers but latter is low)
4. inside vs. outside density (bedroom vs. street)
5. research shows deleterious effects of crowding on people, including stress, aggression, and learning deficits
what are concepts closely related to territoriality: privacy
1. selective control over access to oneself
2. more general concept than crowding, as it does not refer only to getting away from people
3. territoriality and personal space are space/place privacy-regulating mechanisms
what is a primary territory?
Primary territories, such as homes, are central to the individual's self-concept, under the individual's control, occupied for long durations, extensively marked, and well defended.
what is a secondary territory?
Secondary territories are less psychologically central and occupied for shorter periods of time; they are often shared by a group of regular occupants who may mark and defend the area.
What is a public territory?
Public territories are entered for shorter periods of time, little control is expected, they are not central to users' self-concepts, may be marked, and are not always defended.
Who is Ardrey and why is his name associated with territoriality?
because he wrote a book called "A Personal Inquiry into the Animal Origins of Property and Nations" which describes the evolutionarily determined instinct among humans toward territoriality and the implications of this territoriality in human meta-phenomena such as property ownership and nation building
Who is Calhoun and why is his name associated with crowding?
American ethologist and behavioral researcher noted for his studies of population density and its effects on behavior. He claimed that the bleak effects of overpopulation on rodents were a grim model for the future of the human race. During his studies, Calhoun coined the term "behavioral sink" to describe deviant behaviors in overcrowded population density situations
Do Beaumont and Brown consider gender to be an important aspect of localism?
They illustrate that some women have been able to challenge and re-work what gendered surfing practice means and in so doing, some have become iconic in global surf culture, while others have integrated as members of local surf groups on their merits. But overall, surfing is predominantly male and localism is primarily a gendered phenomenon.
In surfing, waves are considered to be non-rival up to a certain density. true or false?
Economics: what does non-rival and non-excludable mean in the context of public goods?
A public good is a good that is both non excludable and non-rivalrous in that individuals cannot be effectively excluded from use and where use by one individual does not reduce availability to other
What is meant by the surf zone being a "liminal space"?
The beach is a kind of liminal space or zone that is 'consumed' through leisure activities. The
surfable wave is a specific liminal space/zone/phase that has potential to aid our understanding of surfing and localism. Under certain conditions the liminal spaces can give rise to communitas: the primary, sensual 'goods' of surfing; when the surf is not up the liminal space closes
Is localism in Hessiock heavy? Where is Hessiock located?
They consider the localism to be pretty mellow, although there have been accounts of verbal localism. Heissiock is located along the South Cornwall peninsula.
What do Beauman and Brown mean by communitas?
a generalized social bond that has ceased to be and has simultaneously yet to be fragmented into a multiplicity of structural ties....
communitas are: The primary, sensual, embodied 'goods' of surfing culture
What impact does crowding have on the liminal space?
crowding restricts access to the liminal space of a surfable wave that provides a key resource for communitas
What is a common feature of local surfers from different localities?
The sharing of respect for place, liminal wave space and its function in producing communitas
Barbarian Days: what are some breaks on the South Shore of Oahu?
The cliffs, Rice Bowl, The bomb, Tonggs and Kaikoo
Barbarian Days: what are some breaks on the big island?
Barbarian Days: what are some breaks in LA county?
Will rogers, Zuma Beach
Barbarian Days: what are some breaks in San Clemente?
Barbarian Days: what are some breaks in Ventura? and la jolla?
Ventura: California street, Oil piers, hollywood-by-the-sea
La jolla: windansea
Barbarian Days: what are some breaks in Maui?
Olowalu, Lahaina, Nipili
Barbarian Days: What break is in Somoa, and Oceana? West of Sumatra?
West of Sumatra: Palau Nias
Barbarian Days: what are some breaks in Fiji?
Tavarua, Cloudbreak, Sigatoka River
Barbarian Days: what are some breaks in Australia?
castles, caves, cactus
Butter Box (Sydney Australia)
Boranup (western aus)
Barbarian Days: what are some breaks on Gold coast Australia?
Kirra, Greenmount, Snapper rocks, Burleigh Heads
Barbarian Days: what are some breaks in Indo?
Racetrack (Uluwatu, bali)
Grayagan (Southeastern Java)
Barbarian Days: what are some breaks in Africa?
Jeffrey's Bay - Eastern bay Africa
Transkei - South Africa
Barbarian Days: what are some breaks in Madagascar? El Salvador?
Madagascar: Fort Dauphin
El Salvador: La Libertad
Barbarian Days: what are some breaks in Portugal?
Madeira - Lisbon
Ponta Delgada, Shadowlands, Ponta Pequena, Jardim do mar, Paul do Mar