the clumping of RBCs by antibodies is called___,whereas the clumping of RBCs by fibrin is____
Leukemia patients are vulnerable to ___ infections, caused by pathogens that take advantage of people with impaired immune systems.
Lumphocytes and monocytes are classified as to distinguish them form the other three types of leukocytes
blood serum is essentially the same as blood plasma, except that plasma contains___ and serum does not.
the __ is especially involved in breaking up old erythrocytes and disposing of the cellular remains.
is secreted in response to hypoxia and produces an negative feedback loop that raises the oxygen concentration of the blood.
An ER patient has been in an automobile accident. He is unconscious and his medical history is unknown, but he is known to have blood type B. He needs blood, and only O-, A-, AB- are available
When platelets degranulate, they release a vasoconstrictor called __, which aids in hemostasis.
Any form of anemia that result from an excessive rate of erythrocyte destruction is classified as
The ventricles are said to exhibit __ when they beat in a rapid, uncoordinated fashion and do not effectively eject blood.
The death of a a patch of myocardium due to ischemia is clinically known as __ and likely to cause a heart attack.
In the aortic arch and carotid arteries there are pressure sensors called __, which help to monitor and regulate blood pressure.
Each ventricle ejects from 70 to 75 mL of blood in one beat. This figure is called the__.
Gradual depolarization of cells of the SA node, prior to the point where mimbrane voltage reaches the threshold, is called the -- potential.
If the SA node fails to function, other regions fo atrial myocardium called __ take over and trigger a rhythmic heartbeat, although at a slower rate
tricuspid, pulmonary, bicuspid, aortic
You are following the pathway of blood from the superior vena cava to the aora. What is the correct order of the valves through which the blood will pass?
When the left ventricle contracts the __ valve closes and the __ valve is pushed open.
O2 rich, CO2 poor; aorta
Blood, which is __, leaves the left side of the heart and is pumped into the ___.
the quienscent period
The average resting cardiac cycle takes about 0.8 sec, including 0.1 sec for atrial systole, 0.3 sec for ventricular systole, and 0.4 sec for
The pressure peaks at about __mmHg in the left ventricle and at about __ mmHg in the right ventricle.
less than the pressure in the left ventricle; open
Blood moves into the aorta when the pressure in the aorta is __ is causing the aortic valve to __.
greater than in the left ventricle; dupp (S2)
The aortic semilunar valve shuts when the pressure in the aorta is __ and results in the __ heart sound.
Hypocalcemia will cause the heart rate to __ and hyperkalemia will cause heart rate to __.
Which one of the following parts of the conduction system directly stimulates the ventricles?
An individual is feeling severe chest pain, which radiates to the neck, jaw, shoulder, and left arm. The individual is showing symptoms of
aorta; right atrium
The coronary artery receives blood from the __, and the coronary artery empties blood into the __.
In mitral stenosis, one of the most common forms of valvular heart disease, when the ventricles contract blood will leak back into the
parietal; fibrous and serous layers
The heart is enclosed in a double-walled sac called the pericardium. The outer wall is called the __ paricardium and consists of
In the cardiovascular system, the __ circuit carries blood to and from the lungs, which is served by the __ side of the heart.
If end-diastolic volume is 108 mL, end-systolic volume is 35mL, and ejection fraction is 0.86, then the stroke volume must be
the end-systolic volume
At the end of ventricular contraction, the amount of blood remaining in the ventricle is
If the chordae tendineae of an animal's heart were cut, the most likely effect would be
less than the pressure in the left atrium; greater than the pressure in the left atrium
The mitral, or bicuspid valve, opens when the pressure in the left ventricle is__; and the mitral valve closes when the pressure in the left ventricle is __.
lubb (S1); ventricles contract
An individual has mitral valve prolapse, which generates a gurgling sound called a heart murmur. The murmur would be associated with the __ heart sound and occurs when the __
does not rely on anaerobic respiration
Cardiac muscle metabolism is different from skeletal muscle metabolism because cardiac muscle
tightens the chordae tendinae preventing the AV valves from prolapsing
When the ventricles contract, the papillary muscles also contract which
The cardiovascular system refers to all of the below except one. The area that is not a part of the cardiovascular system is the: heart, arteries, blood, capillaries, veins
arterial anastomoses in the coronary circulation
An anatomical arrangement that reduces the risk for the myocardial infarctions is
An arteriovenous __ is a route by which blood flows from an artery to a vein without passing through capillaries.
The lowest arterial blood pressure observed during the cardiac cycle is called the __ pressure.
arterial circle (Circle of Willis)
The __ is a complex of arteries on the base of the brain, surrounding the pituitary gland.
Which term can be described as the route in which blood flows through two capillary beds in series before returning to the heart>
the subclavian veins
Most blood from the brain flows down the internal jugular veins and then into __.
The major deep veins of the forearm are the __ on the medial side and the __ on the lateral side, respectively.
In a puncture of the dural sinus there is great danger of blocking cardiac output because of a (an) __.
capillary bed; artery or vein
The common route for blood flow is heart-arteries- arterioles- capillaries- venules- veins- heart. There are exceptions to this route, noteable portal systems and anastomoses. In a portal system blood flows from one __ to another, while in the anastomoses blood flows from one __ to another.
lumen; tunica media
The renal vein has a larger diameter than the renal artery with the renal vein having a larger __ but a smaller __.
Arteries like the aorta, pulmonary arteries, and common carotid arteries maintain pressure on blood during ventricular diastole and lessen the fluctuations in blood pressure. These are ___ arteries.
destruction of valves in the wall of a vein
People who stand for long periods have pressure buildup, particularly in their superficial vessels, which may result in varicose veins.Varicose veins are caused by
milliliters of mercury; peak arterial pressure during systole
In the arterial blood pressure reading, for example in a young adult, the ratio is written 120/75. The 120 reading is in__ units and refers to__.
Hypertension, or high blood pressure is a chronic resting blood pressure higher than __ mmHg systolic or __mmHg diastolic.
A weak point in a blood vessel or heart wall that forms in a thin-walled, bulging sac that may rupture is called an a(n)
vasodilation; an increase
Anaphylactic shock can be caused by a hypertesive reaction, which individuals can have to such things as a bee sting or to penecillin. These individuals have massive release of histamine, which causes__ if blood vessels and ___ in atrialblood pressure.
EP and angioteinsin II; EP
These two hormones are powerful vasoconstrictors;___> Of these two hormones, ___also stimulates and increase in heart rate.
The arterial supply for the upper limbs beings with the subclavian artery, which continues as the ___ and ___ arteries as blood flows toward the elbow.