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the production of blood cells and platelets is called


an abnormally low concentration of oxygen in the bloodstream is called


the red color of erythrocytes comes from the pigment


most clotting factors are plasma proteins synthesized by the


a blood clot that breaks free and travels in the blood stream is called a/an


the clumping of RBCs by antibodies is called___,whereas the clumping of RBCs by fibrin is____


Leukemia patients are vulnerable to ___ infections, caused by pathogens that take advantage of people with impaired immune systems.


all mechanisms for stopping bleeding are collectively called___


Lumphocytes and monocytes are classified as to distinguish them form the other three types of leukocytes


platelet-producing cells are known as


the percent of whole blood composed of erythrocytes is known as


a bruise or mass or clotted blood in a tissue is known as


erythrocyte antigens that determine a person's ABO blood type are known as


this is a source of histamine


results from a hereditary lack of intrinsic factor is known as


the nonprotein moiety of hemoglobin is known as


is not found in blood


is found in blood


is found in blood


is found in blood


is found in blood

nutrient transport

an important function of blood

heat transfer

an important function of blood


an important function of blood

hormone production

not an important function of blood

pH buffering

an important function of blood

blood serum

plasma minus clotting proteins


blood serum is essentially the same as blood plasma, except that plasma contains___ and serum does not.

the production ofr white blood cells

Leukopoiesis is

transport of carbon dioxide

erythrocytes transport oxygen and serve to


the __ is especially involved in breaking up old erythrocytes and disposing of the cellular remains.


the enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin is


a deficiency of circulating leukocytes is called


is secreted in response to hypoxia and produces an negative feedback loop that raises the oxygen concentration of the blood.


def. of oxygen in a tissue


the viscosity of blood is due more to __ than to any other factor.


an ion that serves as a cofactor in blood clotting

high blood pressure

least likely to result from sever chronic anemia

cardiac stress

symptom likely to result from severe chronic anemia

tissue necrosis

symptom likely to result from severe chronic anemia

low blood viscosity

symptom likely to result from severe chronic anemia


a symptom likely to result from severe chronic anemia


opposes coagulation

Hageman factor

does not oppose coagulation


does not oppose coagulation

vitamin K

does not oppose coagulation


does not oppose coagulation


blood components that is not a protein


blood component that is a protein


protein blood component


protein blood component


protein component of blood


An ER patient has been in an automobile accident. He is unconscious and his medical history is unknown, but he is known to have blood type B. He needs blood, and only O-, A-, AB- are available


condition that could result from an overly zealous progran of exercise


When platelets degranulate, they release a vasoconstrictor called __, which aids in hemostasis.


Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are


__ is a bile pigment formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin from expired erythrocytes.


are formed elements of the blood that are not and never were true cells.

Y globulins

antibodies belong to a class of plasma proteins called


It would be impossible for a type O+ baby to have a/an ___ father


Is not a component of hemostasis.

the kidneys

Erythropoiesis is stimulated by a hormone that is secreted be ___

hemolytic anemia

Any form of anemia that result from an excessive rate of erythrocyte destruction is classified as


Tissue microphages develop from

AV bundle

Site of damage that could cause a heart block

Ventricular systole

Phase of the cardiac cycle in which the AV valves close


The ventricles are said to exhibit __ when they beat in a rapid, uncoordinated fashion and do not effectively eject blood.

myocardial infarction

The death of a a patch of myocardium due to ischemia is clinically known as __ and likely to cause a heart attack.


In the aortic arch and carotid arteries there are pressure sensors called __, which help to monitor and regulate blood pressure.


Abnormally fast heart rate is known as __

chordae tendinae

This helps to prevent valvular prolapse during ventricular systole.

Superior vena cava

Empties into the right atrium.

stroke volume

Each ventricle ejects from 70 to 75 mL of blood in one beat. This figure is called the__.

heart rate and stroke volume

Cardiac output is a product is a product of __ and __.


Gradual depolarization of cells of the SA node, prior to the point where mimbrane voltage reaches the threshold, is called the -- potential.


Contraction of any heart chamber is called __.


A persistent, resting heart rate in excess of 100 beats/minute is called __.

ectopic pacemaker

If the SA node fails to function, other regions fo atrial myocardium called __ take over and trigger a rhythmic heartbeat, although at a slower rate

second heart sound

This is caused partly by closing of the semilunar valves ___.

coronary sinus

This recieves blood that has circulated through the myocardium.

stroke volume

Milliliters of blood ejected by one beat of the left ventricle is known as __

simple squamous; endothelium

The endocardium is lined by a ___ epithelium called the __.

tricuspid, pulmonary, bicuspid, aortic

You are following the pathway of blood from the superior vena cava to the aora. What is the correct order of the valves through which the blood will pass?

mitral; aortic

When the left ventricle contracts the __ valve closes and the __ valve is pushed open.

O2 rich, CO2 poor; aorta

Blood, which is __, leaves the left side of the heart and is pumped into the ___.

the endocardium

The innermost lining of the heart wall is

women than in men

The heart rate tends to be higher in

the medula oblongata

The cardiac center, which modifies the heart rate, is located in:

the stroke volume

The amount of blood (mL) coming from one ventricle in one heartbear is called :

the pulmonary semilunar valve

Blood normally leaves the right ventricle through:

the quienscent period

The average resting cardiac cycle takes about 0.8 sec, including 0.1 sec for atrial systole, 0.3 sec for ventricular systole, and 0.4 sec for

the proximal end of the aorta

The coronary arteries arise from


The pressure peaks at about __mmHg in the left ventricle and at about __ mmHg in the right ventricle.

during atrial diastole

Most of the ventricle filling occurs

less than the pressure in the left ventricle; open

Blood moves into the aorta when the pressure in the aorta is __ is causing the aortic valve to __.

greater than in the left ventricle; dupp (S2)

The aortic semilunar valve shuts when the pressure in the aorta is __ and results in the __ heart sound.

increase; decrease

Hypocalcemia will cause the heart rate to __ and hyperkalemia will cause heart rate to __.

Purkinje fibers

Which one of the following parts of the conduction system directly stimulates the ventricles?

myocardial infarction

An individual is feeling severe chest pain, which radiates to the neck, jaw, shoulder, and left arm. The individual is showing symptoms of

aorta; right atrium

The coronary artery receives blood from the __, and the coronary artery empties blood into the __.

left atrium

In mitral stenosis, one of the most common forms of valvular heart disease, when the ventricles contract blood will leak back into the

parietal; fibrous and serous layers

The heart is enclosed in a double-walled sac called the pericardium. The outer wall is called the __ paricardium and consists of

pulmonary; right

In the cardiovascular system, the __ circuit carries blood to and from the lungs, which is served by the __ side of the heart.

it will beat even it all the nerves to it are severed

Because the human heart is myogenic

more mitochondria

Unlike skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle has

increasing the heart rate

Hypercapnia has the effect of

73 mL

If end-diastolic volume is 108 mL, end-systolic volume is 35mL, and ejection fraction is 0.86, then the stroke volume must be

the Purkinje fibers

The conduction of electrical signals is fastest in

the T wave

The second heart sound immediately follows

the end-systolic volume

At the end of ventricular contraction, the amount of blood remaining in the ventricle is

slow ventricular filling

Diastasis is a period of

valvular prolapse

If the chordae tendineae of an animal's heart were cut, the most likely effect would be

less than the pressure in the left atrium; greater than the pressure in the left atrium

The mitral, or bicuspid valve, opens when the pressure in the left ventricle is__; and the mitral valve closes when the pressure in the left ventricle is __.

lubb (S1); ventricles contract

An individual has mitral valve prolapse, which generates a gurgling sound called a heart murmur. The murmur would be associated with the __ heart sound and occurs when the __

does not rely on anaerobic respiration

Cardiac muscle metabolism is different from skeletal muscle metabolism because cardiac muscle

anterior interventricular and circumflex arteries

The left coronary artery divides into the

tightens the chordae tendinae preventing the AV valves from prolapsing

When the ventricles contract, the papillary muscles also contract which


The cardiovascular system refers to all of the below except one. The area that is not a part of the cardiovascular system is the: heart, arteries, blood, capillaries, veins

arterial anastomoses in the coronary circulation

An anatomical arrangement that reduces the risk for the myocardial infarctions is

R wave

Isovolumetric contraction occurs during the __ of the electrocardiogram.


An arteriovenous __ is a route by which blood flows from an artery to a vein without passing through capillaries.

tunica media

The middle layer of a blood vessel is called the


The lowest arterial blood pressure observed during the cardiac cycle is called the __ pressure.

common iliac

At its inferior end, the aorta branches into right and left __ arteries.

arterial circle (Circle of Willis)

The __ is a complex of arteries on the base of the brain, surrounding the pituitary gland.

hepatic portal

Intestinal blood enters the inferior side of the liver by way of the ___ vein.

phrenic artery

Which term can be described as the artery that supplies the diaphragm?

portal system

Which term can be described as the route in which blood flows through two capillary beds in series before returning to the heart>

angiotensin II

Which term describes a hormone that is a strong vasoconstrictor?

intercostal arteries

The muscles between the ribs are supplied by the anterior and posterior__.

the subclavian veins

Most blood from the brain flows down the internal jugular veins and then into __.


How many pulmonary arteries empty into the right atrium of the heart?

ulnar; radial

The major deep veins of the forearm are the __ on the medial side and the __ on the lateral side, respectively.

the superficial temporal artery

Immediately lateral to the eyebrow, you can palpate the pulse of__.

an aneurysm

A weakened vessel that bulges during systole is called__.

vessel radius

Blood flow is directly proportional to__.

air embolism

In a puncture of the dural sinus there is great danger of blocking cardiac output because of a (an) __.

blood viscosity

Peripheral resistance is directly proportional to __.

viscosity increases

Blood flow will decrease if__.


Water enters the blood capillaries by means of___

capillary bed; artery or vein

The common route for blood flow is heart-arteries- arterioles- capillaries- venules- veins- heart. There are exceptions to this route, noteable portal systems and anastomoses. In a portal system blood flows from one __ to another, while in the anastomoses blood flows from one __ to another.

large artery

You would expect to find the thickest tunica media in a

lumen; tunica media

The renal vein has a larger diameter than the renal artery with the renal vein having a larger __ but a smaller __.


Arteries like the aorta, pulmonary arteries, and common carotid arteries maintain pressure on blood during ventricular diastole and lessen the fluctuations in blood pressure. These are ___ arteries.

veins and lymphatic vessels

Valves are found in

destruction of valves in the wall of a vein

People who stand for long periods have pressure buildup, particularly in their superficial vessels, which may result in varicose veins.Varicose veins are caused by

milliliters of mercury; peak arterial pressure during systole

In the arterial blood pressure reading, for example in a young adult, the ratio is written 120/75. The 120 reading is in__ units and refers to__.


Hypertension, or high blood pressure is a chronic resting blood pressure higher than __ mmHg systolic or __mmHg diastolic.


A weak point in a blood vessel or heart wall that forms in a thin-walled, bulging sac that may rupture is called an a(n)

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