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157 terms

test 1 A&PII

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hemopoiesis
the production of blood cells and platelets is called
hypoxemia
an abnormally low concentration of oxygen in the bloodstream is called
hemoglobin
the red color of erythrocytes comes from the pigment
liver
most clotting factors are plasma proteins synthesized by the
embolus
a blood clot that breaks free and travels in the blood stream is called a/an
agglutination;coagulation
the clumping of RBCs by antibodies is called___,whereas the clumping of RBCs by fibrin is____
opportunistic
Leukemia patients are vulnerable to ___ infections, caused by pathogens that take advantage of people with impaired immune systems.
hemostatis
all mechanisms for stopping bleeding are collectively called___
agranulocytes
Lumphocytes and monocytes are classified as to distinguish them form the other three types of leukocytes
megakaryocytes
platelet-producing cells are known as
hematocrit
the percent of whole blood composed of erythrocytes is known as
hematoma
a bruise or mass or clotted blood in a tissue is known as
agglutinogens
erythrocyte antigens that determine a person's ABO blood type are known as
basophil
this is a source of histamine
hemophilia
results from a hereditary lack of intrinsic factor is known as
heme
the nonprotein moiety of hemoglobin is known as
glycogen
is not found in blood
fibrinogen
is found in blood
glucose
is found in blood
urea
is found in blood
albumin
is found in blood
nutrient transport
an important function of blood
heat transfer
an important function of blood
clotting
an important function of blood
hormone production
not an important function of blood
pH buffering
an important function of blood
blood serum
plasma minus clotting proteins
fibrinogen
blood serum is essentially the same as blood plasma, except that plasma contains___ and serum does not.
the production ofr white blood cells
Leukopoiesis is
transport of carbon dioxide
erythrocytes transport oxygen and serve to
spleen
the __ is especially involved in breaking up old erythrocytes and disposing of the cellular remains.
thrombin
the enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin is
leukopenia
a deficiency of circulating leukocytes is called
erythropoietin
is secreted in response to hypoxia and produces an negative feedback loop that raises the oxygen concentration of the blood.
hypoxia
def. of oxygen in a tissue
erythrocytes
the viscosity of blood is due more to __ than to any other factor.
Ca2
an ion that serves as a cofactor in blood clotting
high blood pressure
least likely to result from sever chronic anemia
cardiac stress
symptom likely to result from severe chronic anemia
tissue necrosis
symptom likely to result from severe chronic anemia
low blood viscosity
symptom likely to result from severe chronic anemia
hypoxemia
a symptom likely to result from severe chronic anemia
heparin
opposes coagulation
Hageman factor
does not oppose coagulation
thromboplastin
does not oppose coagulation
vitamin K
does not oppose coagulation
thrombin
does not oppose coagulation
creatine
blood components that is not a protein
ferritin
blood component that is a protein
albumin
protein blood component
antibodies
protein blood component
prothrombin
protein component of blood
O-
An ER patient has been in an automobile accident. He is unconscious and his medical history is unknown, but he is known to have blood type B. He needs blood, and only O-, A-, AB- are available
polycythemia
condition that could result from an overly zealous progran of exercise
serotonin
When platelets degranulate, they release a vasoconstrictor called __, which aids in hemostasis.
neutrophils
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are
Biliverdin
__ is a bile pigment formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin from expired erythrocytes.
Platelets
are formed elements of the blood that are not and never were true cells.
Y globulins
antibodies belong to a class of plasma proteins called
AB-
It would be impossible for a type O+ baby to have a/an ___ father
agglutination
Is not a component of hemostasis.
the kidneys
Erythropoiesis is stimulated by a hormone that is secreted be ___
hemolytic anemia
Any form of anemia that result from an excessive rate of erythrocyte destruction is classified as
monocytes
Tissue microphages develop from
AV bundle
Site of damage that could cause a heart block
Ventricular systole
Phase of the cardiac cycle in which the AV valves close
fibrillation
The ventricles are said to exhibit __ when they beat in a rapid, uncoordinated fashion and do not effectively eject blood.
myocardial infarction
The death of a a patch of myocardium due to ischemia is clinically known as __ and likely to cause a heart attack.
baroreceptors
In the aortic arch and carotid arteries there are pressure sensors called __, which help to monitor and regulate blood pressure.
tachycardia
Abnormally fast heart rate is known as __
chordae tendinae
This helps to prevent valvular prolapse during ventricular systole.
Superior vena cava
Empties into the right atrium.
stroke volume
Each ventricle ejects from 70 to 75 mL of blood in one beat. This figure is called the__.
heart rate and stroke volume
Cardiac output is a product is a product of __ and __.
pacemaker
Gradual depolarization of cells of the SA node, prior to the point where mimbrane voltage reaches the threshold, is called the -- potential.
systole
Contraction of any heart chamber is called __.
tachycardia
A persistent, resting heart rate in excess of 100 beats/minute is called __.
ectopic pacemaker
If the SA node fails to function, other regions fo atrial myocardium called __ take over and trigger a rhythmic heartbeat, although at a slower rate
second heart sound
This is caused partly by closing of the semilunar valves ___.
coronary sinus
This recieves blood that has circulated through the myocardium.
stroke volume
Milliliters of blood ejected by one beat of the left ventricle is known as __
simple squamous; endothelium
The endocardium is lined by a ___ epithelium called the __.
tricuspid, pulmonary, bicuspid, aortic
You are following the pathway of blood from the superior vena cava to the aora. What is the correct order of the valves through which the blood will pass?
mitral; aortic
When the left ventricle contracts the __ valve closes and the __ valve is pushed open.
O2 rich, CO2 poor; aorta
Blood, which is __, leaves the left side of the heart and is pumped into the ___.
the endocardium
The innermost lining of the heart wall is
women than in men
The heart rate tends to be higher in
the medula oblongata
The cardiac center, which modifies the heart rate, is located in:
the stroke volume
The amount of blood (mL) coming from one ventricle in one heartbear is called :
the pulmonary semilunar valve
Blood normally leaves the right ventricle through:
the quienscent period
The average resting cardiac cycle takes about 0.8 sec, including 0.1 sec for atrial systole, 0.3 sec for ventricular systole, and 0.4 sec for
the proximal end of the aorta
The coronary arteries arise from
120;80
The pressure peaks at about __mmHg in the left ventricle and at about __ mmHg in the right ventricle.
during atrial diastole
Most of the ventricle filling occurs
less than the pressure in the left ventricle; open
Blood moves into the aorta when the pressure in the aorta is __ is causing the aortic valve to __.
greater than in the left ventricle; dupp (S2)
The aortic semilunar valve shuts when the pressure in the aorta is __ and results in the __ heart sound.
increase; decrease
Hypocalcemia will cause the heart rate to __ and hyperkalemia will cause heart rate to __.
Purkinje fibers
Which one of the following parts of the conduction system directly stimulates the ventricles?
myocardial infarction
An individual is feeling severe chest pain, which radiates to the neck, jaw, shoulder, and left arm. The individual is showing symptoms of
aorta; right atrium
The coronary artery receives blood from the __, and the coronary artery empties blood into the __.
left atrium
In mitral stenosis, one of the most common forms of valvular heart disease, when the ventricles contract blood will leak back into the
parietal; fibrous and serous layers
The heart is enclosed in a double-walled sac called the pericardium. The outer wall is called the __ paricardium and consists of
pulmonary; right
In the cardiovascular system, the __ circuit carries blood to and from the lungs, which is served by the __ side of the heart.
it will beat even it all the nerves to it are severed
Because the human heart is myogenic
more mitochondria
Unlike skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle has
increasing the heart rate
Hypercapnia has the effect of
73 mL
If end-diastolic volume is 108 mL, end-systolic volume is 35mL, and ejection fraction is 0.86, then the stroke volume must be
the Purkinje fibers
The conduction of electrical signals is fastest in
the T wave
The second heart sound immediately follows
the end-systolic volume
At the end of ventricular contraction, the amount of blood remaining in the ventricle is
slow ventricular filling
Diastasis is a period of
valvular prolapse
If the chordae tendineae of an animal's heart were cut, the most likely effect would be
less than the pressure in the left atrium; greater than the pressure in the left atrium
The mitral, or bicuspid valve, opens when the pressure in the left ventricle is__; and the mitral valve closes when the pressure in the left ventricle is __.
lubb (S1); ventricles contract
An individual has mitral valve prolapse, which generates a gurgling sound called a heart murmur. The murmur would be associated with the __ heart sound and occurs when the __
does not rely on anaerobic respiration
Cardiac muscle metabolism is different from skeletal muscle metabolism because cardiac muscle
anterior interventricular and circumflex arteries
The left coronary artery divides into the
tightens the chordae tendinae preventing the AV valves from prolapsing
When the ventricles contract, the papillary muscles also contract which
blood
The cardiovascular system refers to all of the below except one. The area that is not a part of the cardiovascular system is the: heart, arteries, blood, capillaries, veins
arterial anastomoses in the coronary circulation
An anatomical arrangement that reduces the risk for the myocardial infarctions is
R wave
Isovolumetric contraction occurs during the __ of the electrocardiogram.
anastomosis
An arteriovenous __ is a route by which blood flows from an artery to a vein without passing through capillaries.
tunica media
The middle layer of a blood vessel is called the
diastolic
The lowest arterial blood pressure observed during the cardiac cycle is called the __ pressure.
common iliac
At its inferior end, the aorta branches into right and left __ arteries.
arterial circle (Circle of Willis)
The __ is a complex of arteries on the base of the brain, surrounding the pituitary gland.
hepatic portal
Intestinal blood enters the inferior side of the liver by way of the ___ vein.
phrenic artery
Which term can be described as the artery that supplies the diaphragm?
portal system
Which term can be described as the route in which blood flows through two capillary beds in series before returning to the heart>
angiotensin II
Which term describes a hormone that is a strong vasoconstrictor?
intercostal arteries
The muscles between the ribs are supplied by the anterior and posterior__.
the subclavian veins
Most blood from the brain flows down the internal jugular veins and then into __.
none
How many pulmonary arteries empty into the right atrium of the heart?
ulnar; radial
The major deep veins of the forearm are the __ on the medial side and the __ on the lateral side, respectively.
the superficial temporal artery
Immediately lateral to the eyebrow, you can palpate the pulse of__.
an aneurysm
A weakened vessel that bulges during systole is called__.
vessel radius
Blood flow is directly proportional to__.
air embolism
In a puncture of the dural sinus there is great danger of blocking cardiac output because of a (an) __.
blood viscosity
Peripheral resistance is directly proportional to __.
viscosity increases
Blood flow will decrease if__.
osmosis
Water enters the blood capillaries by means of___
capillary bed; artery or vein
The common route for blood flow is heart-arteries- arterioles- capillaries- venules- veins- heart. There are exceptions to this route, noteable portal systems and anastomoses. In a portal system blood flows from one __ to another, while in the anastomoses blood flows from one __ to another.
large artery
You would expect to find the thickest tunica media in a
lumen; tunica media
The renal vein has a larger diameter than the renal artery with the renal vein having a larger __ but a smaller __.
elastic
Arteries like the aorta, pulmonary arteries, and common carotid arteries maintain pressure on blood during ventricular diastole and lessen the fluctuations in blood pressure. These are ___ arteries.
veins and lymphatic vessels
Valves are found in
destruction of valves in the wall of a vein
People who stand for long periods have pressure buildup, particularly in their superficial vessels, which may result in varicose veins.Varicose veins are caused by
milliliters of mercury; peak arterial pressure during systole
In the arterial blood pressure reading, for example in a young adult, the ratio is written 120/75. The 120 reading is in__ units and refers to__.
140;90
Hypertension, or high blood pressure is a chronic resting blood pressure higher than __ mmHg systolic or __mmHg diastolic.
aneuysm
A weak point in a blood vessel or heart wall that forms in a thin-walled, bulging sac that may rupture is called an a(n)
vasodilation; an increase
Anaphylactic shock can be caused by a hypertesive reaction, which individuals can have to such things as a bee sting or to penecillin. These individuals have massive release of histamine, which causes__ if blood vessels and ___ in atrialblood pressure.
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
Which of the following hormones reduces blood pressure?
EP and angioteinsin II; EP
These two hormones are powerful vasoconstrictors;___> Of these two hormones, ___also stimulates and increase in heart rate.
blood hydrostatic
The highest pressure that moves substances out of a capillary is __ pressure.
blood colloid osmotic pressure
The highest pressure that moves substances into a capillary is
axillary; brachial
The arterial supply for the upper limbs beings with the subclavian artery, which continues as the ___ and ___ arteries as blood flows toward the elbow.
hepatic
The stomach, duodenum, pancreas, liver, and gall bladder are supplied by the ___ arteries.
internal jugular
The largest vein that drains the neck and head is the __ vein.