Radiologic Science for Technologist CH 1
Terms in this set (107)
The ability to do work by virtue of position.
anything that occupies space and has mass
the quantity of matter contained in any physical object (the quantity of matter as described by its energy equivalence)
is the force exerted on a body under the influence of gravity
kilo stands for 1000. is equal to 1000 grams
Ability to do work
The energy of motion
The energy released by a chemical reaction.
Electrons moving through an electric potential difference (voltage)
The energy of motion at the molecular level (heat)
The energy that is contained within the nucleus of an atom
Type of energy used in x-ray imaging. x-rays, gamma rays, radio waves, microwaves, and ultraviolet, infrared and visible light. It does not include sound
electromagnetic energy which is radiated
a matter that intercepts radiation and absorbs part or all of it. A patient is irradiated when exposed to X-ray
An atom that has gained or lost an electron.
the transfer of energy
the removal of an electron from an atom.
any type of radiation that is capable of removing an orbital electron from the atom with which it interacts.
sources of ionizing radiation
natural environmental radiation (annual dose 3 millisieverts mSv) and man-made radiation (annual dose 3.2 mSv)
unit of measurement of radiation
mSv - millisievert
natural environmental radiation
cosmic rays, terrestrial radiation, internally deposited radionuclides and radon
are particulate and electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun and stars (.3 mSv)
results from deposits of uranium, thorium and other radionuclides in the earth (.3 mSv)
a radioactive gas that is produced by natural radioactive decay of uranium in the earth (.3mSv)
mainly x-rays (3.2 mSv) which is 51% of over all radiation exposure (6.3 mSv)
unit measure in kilovolt peak ( kVp) one kilovolt (kV) is equal to 1000 V of electric potential
discovered x-rays in 1895
The fluorescent material that helped roentgen discover x-rays
Who /When received the first Nobel Prize?
Demonstrated the use of intensifying screens, 1896
Developed the Fluoroscope in 1898
First x-ray fatality
A partially evacuated glass tube, 1870s-1880s
invented by William Coolidge in 1913 - the hot-cathode x-ray vacuum tube
introduced the transformer 1907
by William Rollins - X-ray beam is restricted by a lead sheet with a hole in the center. reduced the exposure to patients
reduced hazards to patients
coloration and filtration
by Edison in 1898
Invented the stationary grid in 1913
invented a moving grid in 1915
diagnostic ultrasonography introduced
Metal filters, usually aluminum of copper, are inserted into the x-ray tube housing to absorb low-energy x rays before they reach the patient.
Restricts the x-ray beam to that part of the body to be imaged. Spares adjacent tissue from unnecessary exposure and reduces scatter radiation
lead-impregnated material used for gloves, aprons and gonadal shields
As Low As Reasonably Achievable
3 base measurable quantities
the building blocks. Mass, length and time
secondary quantities - dried quantities (7) of measurement
energy, power, work, momentum, force, velocity and acceleration
special quantities of measurement (4)
exposure, dose, effective dose and radioactivity
the second is based on
the vibration of atoms of cesium
three laws of motion/Newton's law
1 -Inertia, 2- Force, 3- Action/Reaction
A body will remain at rest or will continue to move with constant velocity in a straight line unless acted on by an external force (friction)
The push or pull on an object.
F = ma (mass x acceleration)
V=lwh (length x width x height) multiply the the units of measure also (ex. 1.1 m3 - m to the third power)
for every action, there is an equal & opposite reaction
M= SID/SOD (source to image receptor distance divided by source to object distance)
velocity= d/t (distance traveled divided by time. unit of measure is m/s (meters per second)
average velocity formula
V with a line above it = Vo + Vf divided by 2. unit of measure is m/s
a= Vf - Vo divided by t. Unit of measure is m/s2
Wt = mg (mass x gravity). Unit of measure is newtons (N). On earth 1 lb = 4.5 N.
weight is the product of mass and the acceleration of gravity.
P= mv (mass x velocity)
Momentum is the product of mass and velocity
Fd (force x distance). unite of measure is joule (J). Work is the product of fore (F) and distance (d).
work/time. unit of measure is watts (W).
Power is the quotient of work by time.
KE = 1/2 mv2 (mass x velocity to the 2nd power).
potential energy formula
PE = mgh (mass x gravity x distance above earth surface). unit of measure is joule (J)
is the kinetic energy of the random motion of molecules. the more rapid and disordered the motion of molecules, the more heat an object contains.
three ways of heat transfer
Conduction, Convection and Thermal Radiation.
unit of measurement is calorie.
Transfer of heat through material or by touching
mechanical transfer of "hot" molecule in gas or liquid
Transfer heat by emission of infrared radiation evident by reddish glow
standard unit represented by the platinum-iridium cylinder
Unit of Mass
If an object were taken anywhere in the universe, would it have the same mass?
yes, but does not have the same weight.
Name of plate that was glowing
primary characteristic of matter
The second after letting off the exposure button are x rays still coming out of the tube?
What are the three types of x-ray examinations
Fluoroscopy, Radiography and Computed Tomography.
speed of light
acceleration due to gravity
g=9.8 m/s^2 on earth
equation from the roentgen to the SI in terms of electric charge per unit mass
the two general types of xray procedures
fluoroscopy and radiography
measured in kilograms
measured in Meters
measured in seconds
Vibration of atoms in cesium
distance traveled by light in a fraction of time
5/9 (Tf - 32)
from C to F - double then add 30
9/2 (Tc + 32)
from F to C - subtract 30 and divide by 2.
Tc + 273
Air Kerma (Gya)
is the unit of radiation exposure.
kinetic energy released in matter.
is the unit of radiation absorbed dose (rad).
the radiation energy absorbed per unit mass.
is the unit of occupational radiation exposure & effective dose. The the quantity of radiation received by radiation workers & population.
radioactivity becquerel (Bq)
is the unit of quantity of radioactive material - not the radiation emitted by the material.
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