27 terms

Computer Hardware

Principles of Information Technology
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Broadband
the use of dedicated telephone lines or cable television equipment to maintain a constant connection between two computers.
CD-ROM
compact disk read-only memory; a CD that contains data a computer can read, but to which the computer cannot write new data.
CPU
central processing unit; the part of a computer that controls the computer's logic and its ability to carry out its most basic operations.
DSL
digital subscriber line; high-capacity telephone line used in some broadband connections.
Graphics Card
a circuit board for processing and displaying graphics.
Hard Drive
a digital storage device that houses a rigid disk, also called a hard disk, that stores information magnetically.
LCD
liquid crystal display; a type of computer monitor that uses technology that displays text and images by passing electricity through a liquid crystal solution sandwiched between two magnetic sheets.
LAN
local-area network; a group of interconnected computers in one location, such as a building or complex of buildings.
Memory Card
a small removable digital input module used in digital input devices such as cameras an daudio recorders.
Motherboard
the main circuit board of a computer.
Operating System
software that enables a computer to run other software and perform basic tasks such as accepting input, processing, and sending output.
Peripheral
a device that is used with a computer but is not an essential part of it.
Plasma Display
a flat-panel display that creates images by passing electrical impulses through a neon-xenon gas mixture sandwiched between two sealed glass plates with electrodes on their surfaces.
RAM
random access memory; the electronic memory in which a computer stores data temporarily while a user works with it; also called temporary memory.
Webcam
a digital video camera connected to the World Wide Web to broadcast video.
WAN
wide-area network; a group of interconnected computers spread over a wide geographical area.
Zip disk
a removable disk that has a storage capacity of 100 MB, 250 MB, or 750 MB and requires a Zip disk drive.
Microprocessor
a computer part that contains millions of electronic components and that does most of a computer's processing; also called a chip.
DVD
digital video disk; a CD-like optical disk with a capacity of 4.7 GB or more that can hold a full-length commercial movie.
Chip
another name for microprocessor.
Gigabyte
a measure of data storage equal to approximately one billion bytes; abbreviated GB.
Megabyte
a unit of digital storage equal to approximately one million bytes; abbreviated MB.
Byte
the amount of computer memory required to store a single character; equal to eight bits.
CD-RW
compact disc read/write; a CD on which a computer can store, erase, and replace data.
CD-R
compact disc-recordable; a CD on which a computer can write data. Data written to this type of disc cannot be overwritten.
ROM chip
read-only memory; a chip containing integrated circuits that cannot be erased or reprogrammed.
Flash drive
A tiny, removable and rewritable memory device that plugs into a computer's USB port. There are many other names also used in popular language, including key drive, jump drive, thumb drive, USB flash drive, USB drive, keychain drive, memory key, pen drive.